Wednesday, January 29, 2020

An Outline of Performance Anxiety in Female Athletes Essay Example for Free

An Outline of Performance Anxiety in Female Athletes Essay Have you ever felt an overwhelming feeling of fear or nervousness, prior to competing in an important event? Did it affect your ability to perform? If so, you may be familiar with performance anxiety. An athlete suffering from performance anxiety often will perceive competitive situations as threatening, which can result in feelings of apprehension, fearfulness and tension (Patel, Omar, Terry, 2010). Interestingly, studies have found the prevalence of sport-related performance anxiety to be much higher in female athletes than male athletes (Thatcher, Thatcher, Dorling, 2004, Patel et al, 2010). See more: essay apa format Thatcher (2004) found that while examining temporal patterning of anxiety and hormonal responses prior to competition, females exhibited an â€Å"increases in cognitive and somatic anxiety intensity levels.† These symptoms can often result in performance that is well below demonstrated abilities, injury, or avoidance of participation altogether. The goal of this report is to outline symptoms and effects of performance anxiety, discuss factors that influence the phenomenon, and recommend anxiety-management techniques for female athletes. Physical and Psychological Effects Athletes suffering from performance anxiety often exhibit cognitive, behavioural, and physiological signs and symptoms (Patel et al, 2010). Some of the main cognitive symptoms include; indecision, poor concentration, feelings of fear, and loss of self-esteem (Cox, 2007, p. 201). Behavioural signs and symptoms often consist of; demonstration of nervous habits, such as biting nails and fidgeting, withdrawal, aggressive or irritable behaviour, and perceived inability to compete. Physiological symptoms include; heightened blood pressure and heart rate, sweating, dry mouth, trembling, blushing and muscle tension (Patel et all, 2010). Hormonal changes can also play a role, as Thatcher (2004) found in his study, a decrease in adrenaline and nor adrenaline can be present in female athletes prior to competition. Factors and Influences Common factors that can contribute to performance anxiety include; fear of performance failure, negative social evaluation and/or physical harm, as well as disruption of a well learned routine (Cox, p.201, 2007). The effects of these factors can be further heightened in correlation with importance of an event, or the level of competition. These fears and feelings of anxiety may affect the athlete’s perception of their abilities and hinder their self-confidence, which can be detrimental to their performance. Patterns of perfectionism can also lead to sport-related anxiety, mainly involving setting exceptionally high performance standards of oneself (Cox, p.202, 2007). Setting high standards can often be beneficial to a performance, but athletes that succumb to unrealistic thoughts, that nothing but a perfect/ideal performance is good enough, are more likely to experience negative emotions and heightened levels of anxiety due to the discrepancy between ideal and current self/situation (Koivula, Hassmà ©n, Fallby, 2001). Recommendations Management of performance and competitive anxiety can be challenging. The first strategy would be to consult with a clinical psychologist, who will often suggest a behavioural approach. These approaches have been found to be the optimal coping strategy for sport-related anxiety, specifically Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) (Patel et al, 2010). CBT examines how attitudes, beliefs, opinions and behaviours are formed, how they affect success, and how changing them impacts on performance (Joseph, 2010, p.2). The aim of CBT is to target and address negative thoughts and behaviours that underline anxiety symptoms. This is done by enforcing cognitive restructuring such as positive self-talk, modifying negative self talk and challenging negative expectations, as well as implementing relaxation techniques, exposure methods and relapse prevention (Patel et al, 2010). Coaches can also play an influential role in the factors that affect the development of performance anxiety. Athletes who perceive their coaches as supportive of their efforts experience higher levels of sport enjoyment and lower anxiety. (Smith, Smoll, Cumming, 2007) Conclusion Performance anxiety can negatively affect an athlete’s state of mind, hindering their ability to successfully perform competitively, more commonly seen in female athletes. The physical and psychological effects can cause heightened stress in an athlete which can result in complete withdrawal from competition. Behavioural and cognitive interventions are used to teach the athlete coping skills and enforce relapse prevention plans, in hopes to rid the athlete of performance anxiety sign and symptoms.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Edwin S. Porter :: essays research papers

Edwin S. Porter was both a film pioneer and director. He was a film pioneer because he made people come back to the theaters and start watching movies. His movies also were good because they told a story by editing the move. Being a director he made some of the greatest films in 1902 and 1903. In 1902 he directed The Life of an American Fireman and in 1903 The Great Train Robbery. With these two skills he was able to direct great films and use special camera shots not know of at that present time.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Porter was born on April 21st 1870 in Connellsville, Pennsylvania. There was not really any information on his parents but they did his parents first named him Edward. Since he was pudgy people use to call him Betty. There was really no information on why they called him Betty but I am sure it meant something. In 1893 he joined United States Navy and changed his name. He changed his name to Edwin Stanton instead of Edward Stanton. He changed it after Abraham Lincoln’s Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton before he went into the Navy. They did not go into any detail on why he did it but my guess is he did not like his name and changed it. In the resources that I found I could not find much information about the rest of his family. I could not even find any information on what he did in his early years. The earliest I could find was starting in 1893.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In 1895 he started to work for the Vitascope Marketing Company. He would use his talent of electrical engineering with the company. With Vitascope he was in the project of the first projected movie that was shown in New York. That date was April 23rd 1896. He used his skills in engineering at Edison’s Manufacturing Company’s Laboratory. He let Edison for a while and went to Eden Musee Theatre in New York where he an operator. He was in charge of getting the films and projecting them onto the screen. His duties also were kind of illegal because he took a lot of films and edited them together to make fifteen-minute films. He would also take some of Melies films and put them into the show, since he like some of Melies work. The films would range from historical Wars and news films.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Amazon.Com’s European Distribution Strategy

Amazon Amazon is one of the biggest and most famous online stores in the world. It is divided into several independent organizations like Amazon Europe, Amazon US and Amazon Japan. Amazon was founded in 1995 by Jeff Bezos. At the beginning it was just a platform for selling books at soon it became the world’s biggest bookstore with up to 2,5 million different titles. Their strategy was clear and easy: hold modest inventories and rely on wholesalers. The wholesaler can fulfill the order quickly while Amazon employees pick and pack the order and ship it to the customer.In 1996 Amazon grew really quickly by expansion of their distribution center, increasing number of titles and software development. In 1998 they were not longer a bookshop any more but expanded their product lines to music and videos. However, they had to face tough competition, especially in 1998. So remain the leader of theonline stores Amazon decided to pursue a â€Å"get big fast† strategy to increase t heir revenue. Therefore they added new product lines and adapted its supply chain and distribution network.One big decision was also where they should locate their distribution center and how many they should build. Amazons pick was a distribution center in Nevada, Kansas and Dallas. Soon also three more centers were added to serve the Midwest and the Southeast. The next step was to choose which product types each of the distributions centers should carry. After that they had to make a decision regarding the equipment in the new distribution centers and the technology used in their warehouses.Finally, to maintain high levels of quality and productivity in its distribution centers, Amazon developed key metrics to measure worker performance, including number of items picked per hour, free replacement rate, inventory accuracy, number of hours from order confirmation to shipment, and cost per unit shipped. Performance information was routinely shared with individual workers. In 2000 the new Vice President of Operations Wilke started with teaching the staff to use a special method to reduce variations and defects.This approach was later also used to improve the inventory record accuracy. Moreover, Wilke hired staff to stimulate holiday season conditions and he made arrangements for additional storage capacity. On top of that Wilke also focused on inventory optimization in the fulfillment network. To have the products at the right time available will easily decrease Amazons inventory costs. There were several ideas to improve the inventory management: 1)Refine the software used to forecast customer demand )Establish buying rules to better allocate volumes among wholesalers 3)Integrate its supply management system with its own inventory, warehouse and transportation system 4)Implement buying rules to determine which supplier offers the best price and delivery options 5)Having â€Å"drop ship† orders which means that the product is directly shipped to the custo mer without going through an Amazon distribution center 6)Partner with other companies, with Amazon handling order fulfillment and the partner covers the costs for the inventoryThe last two points were just idea and never realized. Amazon entered Europe through the two countries Germany and the UK. To enter those markets Amazon acquired a leading online store in each country and the two sites were re- launched under the Amazon brand. In 2000 Amazon continued its expansion and entered France. They did not use the same strategy as in Germany and the UK, but build their site from scratch. However, there were several challenges to enter the European market. They had to be aware of the cultural differences in Europe.First, Amazon adapted their website always a little bit to the needs of the country; secondly, they needed to address the selling regulations in each country. Another very important point was the payment options. Because there were not many people in Europe using credit card they had to offer local paying possibilities. On top they recognized that it was impossible to replicate the US procurement strategy in Germany and France because of different supplier market factors. To implement these strategic choices Amazon in Germany, France and the UK were managed as independent Amazon subsidiaries.Each country has its own organizations and was headed by a country manager and every country has its own warehouse. Amazon also was evaluating opportunities to expand in other European countries. Amazon Europe needed to build up its infrastructure to support this ambitious vision. In June 2002, Tom Taylor was transferred from Seattle to London to address some of these issues. In the longer term, Taylor wondered which infrastructure would best support Amazon Europe’s growth potential. Amazon’s decentralized fulfillment model seemed to offer opportunities for rationalization and cost savings.One option was to link all distributions centers. The other opt ion was to keep the three distribution centers. There were also different options about the inventory in these three centers. One could hold the inventory in all three centers or just in selected ones. Another question was regarding the location of the distribution centers. Solution First there was the option of only one distribution center in Europe. This strategy certainly has advantages with regard to lower overhead costs, simplified internal communication, and increased bargaining power due to higher allocation volumes.Considering only the difficulties already encountered in attempting to coordinate national postal carriers for a trustworthy delivery service to international customers, the option to centralize delivery from the UK to all European markets would be a step in the wrong direction. This was a clear difference to the US market; where there was only one postal service serving the entire nation. Express delivery would further complicate matters, as European markets vari ed with regard to provider and service, another problem not encountered in the US.Since delivery time and quality are crucial to success at Amazon, this restructuring option was quickly eliminated from the list of alternatives. The division of Europe into North/South or East/West sectors, to be served by two Distribution Centers, would likely reduce delivery times in many markets and eliminate some of the difficulties associated with the single DC alternative. Compared to the current structure, cost savings could be achieved and activities could be bundled according to regional demands or opportunities (i. e. egal or financial flexibility). This structure would emulate the solution realized in the initial growth period in the US, where a DC was located on each coast, however there would be similar problems as noted above with the coordination of national postal carriers. Another primary difference compared to the US market could be seen with regard to regional consumer preferences a nd tastes. While the US product selection was largely similar, and a common language was used throughout, product selection and language differs from country to country in Europe.Expectations with respect to delivery time, service, payment methods, etc. also vary greatly among European markets and do not compare to the credit card-friendly and on-line purchase-accustomed customers in the US. A two-DC solution may likely not be able to offer the flexibility needed to serve the individual European markets properly. Considering that the three European locations are fully-functional, another alternative would be to simply keep the existing facilities while reallocating services and processes according to cost and service factors.One obvious advantage would be recognized in not needing to relocate or build/acquire new infrastructure. Activities could be spread among the three locations, for example books, media and smaller items in France, Marketplace headquarters in the UK, and bulk or special order items in Germany. This would allow for specialization of services and a clear distinction of functions for management of operations in Europe. In contrast, all services could continue to be provided in all locations, with the addition of products and Marketplace activities in each of the three.Expansion into further markets may be allocated to one of the DC's according to geographic proximity or if applicable, according to financial or logistical aspects. Disadvantages include duplication of activities and infrastructure, increased demand for management and personnel, and the administration/coordination of multiple and varying IT systems (including the integration of manual and automated systems). Our team of analysts proposes a solution which integrates components from each of the aforementioned alternatives.Due to the fact that consumer preferences and expectations vary significantly among markets, and since delivery systems are also not consistent from country to co untry, each market should be served as locally as possible. This does not exclude the option of bundling some functions in specific locations; in fact this should be undertaken. Marketplace activities, for instance, shall be centralized in the UK, since this activity mainly is based on and requires IT functionality.The central functions Customer Service and Procurement also shall be allocated to the UK. With respect to the expansion of product lines, this should be done according to regional/international classification. Items which are non-country or language specific, such as CD's, electronics, hardware, etc. can be allocated and administered at a central European location; in this case France may be selected. Bulk items would be the responsibility of a continental-based facility as well, preferably Germany due to its central location.Any country or language-specific items, i. e. books, fashion apparel, home decor, etc. shall be administered in mini-DC's located within each market . This would assure the â€Å"local touch† required by customers, and would allow for more effective negotiations with local market suppliers. Newly added markets could first be served from the existing three, with the establishment of a mini-DC in the market as soon as the product volume, logistic opportunities and demands, as well as customer buying behaviors are sufficient to justify local investment.Without a doubt, the solution our group has provided leads to higher costs and increased complexity in a number of areas. However, the underlying principle was to devise a way to build the brand and company image in a similar way that was successful in the US market – serving the customer in a quick and simple way. At the same time, the bundling of core functions offers an opportunity to reduce costs and redundancy.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Civil Rights And Black Power Movement - 2608 Words

The topic of my paper concerns how particular movies reflected the views and progress of the Civil Rights/Black Power movement of the 60s. The two films that are being examined are Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967) and Nothing But A Man (1964). Both films feature African-American characters as more than subservient supporting cast members such as maids, and servants. It reflects America’s progressing social attitudes as a result of the Civil Rights and Black Power movements. Throughout this paper, I will argue that films like the aforementioned reflect America’s changing social attitudes about race around this time and work to incorporate and expose the African-American experience into the American film industry in a positive manner. In order to further prove my point, I will analyze the presence of African-Americans in film prior to the 1960s, in conjunction with the lack of civil rights at the time. Prior to this era, roles for Black people were extremely lim ited, and often served as menial and demeaning roles. As the Civil Rights Movement picks up steam, I will examine how the film industry naturally started to adjust its color barriers to accommodate society’s changing attitudes. Nothing But A Man was made in 1964, during the height of the Civil Rights Movement, by a white man, but the film seems to have a heightened sensitivity to the injustices in America at that time. Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner is a highly regarded film made in 1967 that sheds light on aShow MoreRelatedBlack Power And The Civil Rights Movement1675 Words   |  7 Pagesthe growth of Black Power was the most important factor in the weakening of the civil rights movement in the 1960s? Black power is a political slogan that was aimed to promote the ideas of the black racial group. There have been mixed views on weather it weakened the civil rights movement or strengthened it, this involved many factors. 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