Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Black Codes Essay Ryan Fagan U. S. History Honors Bushong 4/27/12 How did the Black Codes prevent the immediate integration of the freed black men into society? Written pages: 5 The Civil War caused many issues for American Society, from the physical separation of the southern states, to the issue of ending slavery, being the most well known, and for good reason. While the north wanted the slaves to be free, the south did not, which obviously caused Problems. This topic of free vs. slavery did not begin after the war started though, the government had dealt with many different cases and often the ended in favor of slavery. After the Civil War the issues with slavery still existed because of the creation of Black Codes, codes that basically forced the Ã¢â¬Å"freeÃ¢â¬ men to report to a white employer or supervisor who decided what they could and could not do freely. These are just few of many reasons that the integration of freed black men, and men of color, took almost a century after the day they were legally released to truly have their freedom. One of the many reasons that the integration of the freed men into society was not more immediate was because of the stance of the national government before the war. We will write a custom essay sample on Black Codes specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Black Codes specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Black Codes specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The north may have not been slave states, but when it came to helping a slave in need, they were not going to be the ones to lend a hand. The Dred Scott case is a prime example of this stance. In this case a slaved argues that his owner moved from a slave state to a free state, thereby causing him to become a free citizen of society. This case was extremely controversial. While on one hand the slave made a point, the other hand caused the government to deny his request for freedom, without real rational reason. When the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s stance changed and Abraham Lincoln became president, the newly elected president caused the country to go to war with itself because of his public stance on slavery. This tragic event caused the south to secede from the United States and form their own government. Of course the sole issue of the southÃ¢â¬â¢s secession was not the loss of slavery, but also had an economic aspect as well. When the Civil War was over, it was quite obvious that the southern states still had a deep and powerful hatred for anyone of color. This hatred, as mentioned before, is the primary reason for the southern states creating the Black Codes. Not only did the Black Codes cause issues between the southern ex-slave owners and their freed slaves, but it also caused a great number of issues in the northern states. The northern states saw these Black Codes as an unfair and cruel way of bringing back slavery. Primarily because in the southern states state government, the white legislators saw no real reason to end the inequality between the white men, and the men of color (Constitutional rights foundation, 2011). Without establishing a new state of mind the governments in the southern states would continue to make these laws, leaving the federal government unable to make any real changes to ensure the well being of the men of color. This only delayed the integration of the men of color into society even longer, because the relationship between the state governments and the national governments were too fragile at this point in time to make anything positive happen. In reviewing the South Carolina Black Codes, it is clear how biased and restricted the everyday lives of the freed men were. In order to integrate into society completely, the freed man would not only need to attempt to change the views of the white men around them, they were still required to follow the Black Codes. Rebellion could only get the freed men so far because they were not permitted to own anything that could be used as a weapon. The South Carolina Black Codes also prevented the migration of freed men to South Carolina without the approval of two South Carolina white men. These white men, known as freeholders, were essentially the people responsible for the freed men, also known as servants, that they approved. After that the Black Codes basically permit slavery to those who take on the responsibility for the freed men. The reason that the free slaves were not able to immediately integrate in society was the Continued existence of the Black Codes. The Black Codes only promoted the previously accepted view of superiority and resulted in lasting conflicts between the races for years. The immediate elimination of the Black Codes would have completely removed any political power that one race would have ad over the other, which in turn would have prevented the conflicts of pride and respect. An immediate overturning of the Black Codes would have also caused the issues of indirect slavery, and violations of rights given to all men by the Bill of Rights and the Constitution. The overall attitude towards freed slaves would have been completely different and would have resulted in a faster change in public opinion and would have allowed the integration of the freed slaves to be much more fluid. Work Cited Black codes and jim crow laws. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. sciway. net/afam/reconstruction/blackcodes. html Constitutional rights foundation. (2011). Retrieved from http://www. crf-usa. org/brown-v-board-50th-anniversary/southern-black-codes. html Herda, D. J. (1948). The dred scott case: Slavery and citizenshipÃ . Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, Inc. The mississippi black code (1865). (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://wps. ablongman. com/long_longman_lahdemo_1/0,8259,1546454-,00. html
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Morrie Riskin essays Morris (Morrie) Ryskind was born to Abraham and Ida (Etelson) Ryskind on October 20, 1895 in Brooklyn, New York. Ryskind graduated from Townsend Harris High School in 1912 and from there, went on to Columbia University School of Journalism. At Columbia, Ryskind was the editor of The Jester. This publication was (and still is) the campus' humor magazine. In this publication, Ryskind had the ability to poke fun at issues and, also, people. However, a published editorial of his in 1917 post-poned his college graduation. Six weeks before he was to graduate, Ryskind wrote an editorial in which he referred to the then Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler as "Czar Nicholas." Due to this, Ryskind was expelled. However, he was later awarded his degree in 1942 (The New York Public Library: Digital Library Collection). Though expelled from Columbia, this did not hurt his career as a columnist. Soon after, Ryskind became a reporter for The World until 1921. The year 1921 also brought forth a published work of poetry by Ryskind entitled Unaccustomed As I Am. With this came many printings of his poetry in professional publications. In 1922, Ryskind moved on to try his hand at theater. He was one of the playwrights to write sketches and lyrics for The 49er's and, later, the Garrick Gaieties (1925). These shorts in the Gaieties are what drew the attention of George S. Kaufman. Kaufman asked Ryskind to collaborate on a musical written for the Marx Brothers, Cocoanuts. This 1925 show featured music by Irving Berlin. Ryskind and Kaufman's work in this musical focused on the Florida real estate boom. Groucho portrayed a hotel owner and real estate developer who lacked in mores (Bordman, 408). This show would be the first of many that Ryskind would collaborate on with Kaufman for the Marx Brothers. After Cocoanuts, Ryskind once again wrote sketches and lyrics for a summer review entitled Merry-Go-Round in 1927. On this ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Does Class Really Matter - Essay Example Class and money are intertwined since money plays a major role in the identification of a class. This identification, however, is not accurate as the value of humans is equated with money. For instance, the public identifies members of a class by weighing their worth in terms of income and monetary possessions. As much as we would like to shun the class system, the fact remains that it exists and has continued to manifest its effects upon each American who holds the vision of living the American dream. There are various levels of stratification, with a general upper, middle and lower classes. Thus, individuals are limited to interaction within their classes meaning chances of cross-class associations are very thin. This same class segregation has been applied in housing and neighborhoods where each residential zone belongs are occupied by members of the same class. Such has led to a segregated society with less sense of community and togetherness as the classes do not help each other. This segregation as we have learned is called classism. According to Classism.org, classism is the assigning individuals characteristics systematically based on their ability and worth leading to social classes and differential treatments (Classism.org). Classism has a great effect on how individuals view themselves, for example, those of lower social class perceive themselves as less fortunate and without any worth to the society. Another aspect the affects peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of themselves a nd others is the nature of the job. For instance, people with jobs of higher status not only earn respect from the society, but also gain self-respect and high self-esteem. Such jobs are also bound to make one happier because of better living standards. It is evident that we, Americans, have come a long way in capitalism. Our culture likes ranking persons in orders of Ã¢â¬ËsignificanceÃ¢â¬â¢, and our culture enables these classified Ã¢â¬ËsignificantÃ¢â¬â¢ individuals flaunt about what
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Discussion Board - Research Paper Example Southwest Airlines is one such organization that has focused on the Low Cost Producer Strategy (bags fly free!) in order to compete in the market. Southwest Airlines offers lower cost services to customers and is a low-cost-carrier. Southwest has almost never served a meal to passengers onboard and has cut on many of the other services that most airlines provide. Since the economic turmoil, as airlines started firing employees, Southwest Airlines fired none and rather cut on the salaries of its employees. This increased the employee loyalty towards the company and strengthened the customer base. This flexible nature has enabled Southwest Airlines to purchase the highest number of 737-700s (Bundgaard, Bejjani & Helmer, 2006) The use of information technology has never the less created the risks of security breaches. Online reservation requires passengers to provide credit/debit card details, that customer are hesitant to provide. However, Southwest has made sure that no fraud ever occurs and all reservations are secured. Apple Inc., a renowned American organization specializing in computers, believes in innovation and thus makes use of Differentiation Strategy as its competitive strategy. Apple has pioneered several inventions and come up with PDAÃ¢â¬â¢s, iMac, iBook, iTunes, iPod, iPad etc. taking the market by storm. Apple has continued to provide customers innovation when it comes to gadgets and has created some of the finest electronic products. The differentiation strategy creates monopoly and reduces the chances of substitutes taking over. Apple Inc. has hired this policy and thus is able to pass on the costs to customers, without losing customer loyalty. This strategy is viable since Apple has rare competitors who cannot replicate AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s market strategy and exploit their sales. Despite strict regulations, Apple has come under numerous security breaches where its data was hacked and
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Human Resources and the Use of Expatriates - Research Paper Example Furthermore, the ever increasing clamor to mind the working conditions of the expatriates living outside their home countries and in the protection of host countries has been especially resonant with the preponderance of dissatisfaction and failure of MNCs to penetrate local markets. But then again, the fact remains that the age of globalization has called for the immediate expansion of business enterprises through a massive branching out process, there appears to be no stopping the affair in the near future. As such, the number of expatriates may be expected to balloon as more and more corporations will join the bandwagon towards globalization. What then remains to be done is to establish a well-regulated system of expatriation that will govern the process for years and years to come. Modern globalized economies have seen it fit to perfect capital expenditure strategies and marketing and advertising techniques to a mindless and robotic insistence. That is, as much variants as these coefficients may throw an entrepreneurs way, they seem to be able to field all pitches and bat out an eventual homerun. With the cutthroat environment that the globalized market has seen fit to establish, skill, education and even technical know-how appears to be less and less of an advantage. In this regard, corporations have considered it as a necessary business objective to not only develop vertically but horizontally, as well. This entails a rabid approach to corporate expansion by seeking ways to concentrate on the establishment of either branches or field offices in other regions or by entering into other related trade. This is in direct contrast to the traditional concept of corporate advancement of mainly improving and sustaining the current business by enacting business policies and programs aimed at becoming an all-enduring and most profitable brand. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s epoch, mush of the
Friday, November 15, 2019
Physical Exercise Reduce Symptoms Depression Health And Social Care Essay The aim of this essay will be to discuss and apply selected evidence related to nursing practice within a chosen field. Evidence based practice is an approach used by clinicians to deliver the highest quality care to meet the needs of patients and their families. By finding appraising and using the best evidence, health professionals are able to achieve optimum outcomes for all. (Melnyk Finout-Overholt 2005). However, an alternative view suggests that evidence exists to inform and guide practice rather than dictate it. (McKenna et Al 1999). When clinicians apply an evidence based model, the best available evidence, modified by patient circumstances and preferences, is applied to improve the quality of clinical judgements. (McMaster Clinical Epidemiology Group 1997) A recognised framework will be used to identify a question and then a systematic literature search will be carried out to assist in answering this question. A copy of this search will be provided and search parameters will be applied to gain the most relevant literature. After applying these parameters the search will be narrowed down to the five most relevant pieces of research. A table will be provided to show the key findings from each piece of literature, and one piece of research will then be critiqued in depth using a recognised framework. The question identified in this essay is Can physical exercise or activity help to reduce the symptoms of depression in older adults, compared to other forms of treatment? Background and Formulation of Question The question was devised using the PICO framework. This framework often is used to formulate clinical questions (Craig Smyth 2002), and it identifies and defines the essential components of a good clinical question. PICO is an acronym for patient population of interest, intervention, comparison intervention and outcome (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2007). Patient population of interest shall be older persons diagnosed with depression, intervention shall be physical exercise or activity, the comparison intervention shall be other forms of treatment for depression and the outcome will be a reduction in the symptoms of depression. A well thought out and formulated question maximises the potential for finding relevant evidence for a patient population (Craig Smyth 2002) Depression in older adults refers to depressive syndromes defined in the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) and in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) that arise in people older than age 65 years. In old age, the symptoms of depression often affect people with chronic medical illnesses, cognitive impairment, or disability. (Alexopolous et al 2002). For a major depressive episode to be diagnosed, five of the following symptoms must be present: depressed mood, diminished interest, loss of pleasure in all or almost all activities, weight loss or gain (more than 5% of bodyweight), insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue, feeling of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt, reduced ability to concentrate, recurrent thought of death or suicide. At least one of the symptoms must be either depressed mood or diminished interest or pleasure. The episode should last at least 2 weeks, lead to distress or functional impairment, and not be a direct effect of substance use, a medical condition, or bereavement. (Depression Today 2010). Two of the symptoms detailed above must be present for a minor depressive episode to be diagnosed. Between one and four percent of the general elderly population has major depression, and minor depression has a prevalence of between four and thirteen percent (Blazer 2003). Twice as many women as men are affected. Both the prevalence (Palsson et al 2001) and the incidence (Teresi et al 2001) of major depression double after age 70-85 years. Treatment for depression usually involves a combination of anti depressant drugs, talking therapies such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy or Interpersonal Therapy and self help. (NHS Choices 2010). A recent review concluded that physical exercise programmes can obtain have a beneficial effect on depressive symptoms in older people. Although not appropriate for all older people exercise may improve mood in those undertaking it. (Blake et al 2009) Systematic Literature Search A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the CINAHL and PubMed databases and the search terms depression physical exercise and old* were used. CINAHL was found to be particularly useful as it possible to specify the age group required in the literature search. For the purposes of this search age 65+ was selected. PubMed is the public access version of Medline, a comprehensive database which indexes thousands of journals in the medical sciences field. (TVU 2010a). The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature Indexes virtually all English language journals from 1983 onwards. This database covers midwifery, nursing and related disciplines (TVU 2010b). Initially the searches indicated a vast array of literature but by applying a systematic review this was reduced. By using a logical search strategy with Boolean techniques the number of documents was limited to thirty. These were then reviewed and five articles were then selected which addressed the ques tion of exercise as a form of treatment for older people diagnosed with depression. The search parameters were limited to studies written in the English language, the age and the subjects, and both sexes were to be included. Harvard (2007) suggests that by applying parameters such as these the most up to date and relevant literature can be sourced. A full record of this search history is attached in appendix 1 and 2. A summary of the findings in the five pieces of research selected is detailed in the table overleaf. This table follows a structure recommended by Timmins McCabe (2005). Author and Year Journal Type of Study Purpose Sample Design Data Collection Key Findings Blake et al 2009 Clinical Rehabilitation Qualitative To assess efficacy of physical exercise in 11 trials totalling 641 participants Varied Varied 1 Exercise not relevant 2009; 23: 873-887 systematic treating depression in older adults to all in group review 2 May improve mood 3 further research needed to establish medium to long term effects and cost effectiveness Mather et al 2002 British Journal of Quantitative To determine whether exercise is effective 86 participants split into RCT clinical 1 Modest improvement Psychiatry (2002) as an addition to anti depressants in reducing two groups interview in symptoms after 10 180:411-415 depressive symptoms in older adults weeks 2 older people should be encouraged to attend exercise classes Brenes et al 2007 Aging Mental Health Quantitative To test feasibility and efficacy of exercise and 37 participants, 32 completed RCT structured 1 Both exercise Jan 2007;11(1):61-68 anti depressants compared with usual the study clinical interview and medication were treatments for older adults with observed shown to be statistically minor depression self reporting more effective than current treatment 2 Exercise also aided physical functioning Kerse et al 2010 Annals of Family Quantitative To assess effectiveness of home based 193 participants, 187 completed RCT structured 1 exercise and social Medicine 8:214-223 (2010) physical exercise plan in treating older the study clinical interview visits showed similar adults with depressive symptoms compared effects in improving to social visits mood an quality of life 2 More research is required Blumenthal et al Archives of Internal Quantitative to assess effectiveness of exercise 156 participants RCT structured 1 after 16 weeks 1999 Medicine 159(19) (1999) compared to antidepressants for treatment clinical interview exercise equally effective of major depression in older as anti depressantsCritical Appraisal The following appraisal was structured by using an approved and recognised framework for completing such tasks. (Polit et al. 2001) The article selected for critical appraisal is Effects of exercise on depressive symptoms in older adults with poorly responsive depressive disorder. (Mather et al. 2002). A copy of the article is attached as appendix 2. The aim of the study was to determine whether exercise is effective as an adjunct to antidepressant therapy in reducing depressive symptoms in older people. This was clearly defined. In the introduction the authors stated that it is widely held that exercise is useful in depression, but that there were few studies on the potential effects that exercise may have as an addition to antidepressant therapies for older adults. The key finding of this study was that at ten weeks older people with poorly responsive depressive disorder showed a modest improvement in depressive symptoms and should therefore be encouraged to attend group exercise activities. The study conducted was a randomised controlled trial. Randomised controlled trials are the most rigorous way of determining whether a relation exists between treatment and outcome and for assessing the cost effectiveness of a treatment. (Sibbald Rowland 1998). Patients were randomly selected to attend either exercise classes or health education talks for ten weeks. Assessments were blind and were conducted at baseline, ten and thirty four weeks. The primary outcome was measured with the 17 item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). HRSD is a multiple choice questionnaire used by clinicians to measure the severity of major depression in patients. (Hamilton 1960). The nature of both interventions is clearly described by the authors. All participants were outpatients recruited from primary care, psychiatric services and direct advertisement. 1885 patients were screened with a view to recruitment, and 86 were selected at random for the study. To be included patients were require d to have symptoms of depression, and to be older than fifty three years of age. In addition patients had to have been receiving antidepressant therapy for at least six weeks, without evidence of a sustained improvement in their condition. Patients were excluded if there was: alcohol or substance misuse, structured psychotherapy in place, or were already taking regular exercise. Patients with specific medical conditions preventing physical exercise were also excluded. Both groups were informed of the nature of the trial, and all patients gave written informed consent. The study was approved by a medical research ethics committee. There were two groups with 43 patients in each and were comparable in terms of age range and symptom presentation. There was however a heavy preponderance of women in the exercise group. The authors suggest that this may have introduced a bias into the results, and suggest a control group could be introduced in the future without either intervention. The outcomes for both groups were measured in the same way by the proportion of participants achieving a greater than thirty percent reduction in HRSD score from baseline. The results are shown in a statistical format and are recorded in a table. There are twenty four references in the report which support the evidence presented by the authors. The implications for the health service are that structured group exercise sessions can help to make a modest improvement in patients who are not responding to pharmacological treatment and that older people with depressive disorders should be encouraged to attend group exercise activities. It should be noted that one of the authors of the research is co-director of a company providing exercise classes for older people and whose profits support research into aging. Review of Literature This review of literature will show how the five main studies and all available literature assist in answering the set question. The first part of this review will concentrate on the five main studies and the second part will contain evidence from a wide range of sources and relate this combined information to government policy and guidelines. There will also be evidence of how all the information relates back to practice. It is well acknowledged that depression is widespread (Osborn et al 2003) and is the most prevalent mental health problem for older people (Age Concern 2007) The condition affects one in five people over 65 and rises to two in five in those over 85 (Mental Health Foundation 2008). The use of exercise to combat depression is well supported due to its effects on enhancing mood, improving cognitive function and reducing anxiety; it is also less expensive than medication (Louch 2008). A literature review was conducted to examine whether exercise could be an effective form of treatment for older adults with depressive symptoms. Article 1 (Blake, Mo, Malik and Thomas 2008) conducted a systematic review of eleven randomized control trials in order to establish whether physical activity interventions were successful in alleviating depressive symptoms in older people. Trials were included in the review when more than 80% of the participants were greater than sixty years old. In nine of the eleven studies short term positive outcomes were found, although the mode, intensity and duration of the exercise program differed across the studies. The medium to long term effects of exercise as an intervention were less clear. This outcome is backed up by Mead et al (2008) who concluded that exercise seems to improve depressive symptoms in people with a diagnosis of depression, but the effects are moderate and not statistically significant. However a randomized controlled trial conducted by Blumenthal et al (1999) (Article 2) had reached different conclusions. One hundred and fifty six men and women aged over fifty were split into groups randomly to a program of aerobic exercise, antidepressants (sertraline hydrochloride) or combined exercise and medication. After sixteen weeks of treatment the patients did not differ significantly statistically either on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression or Beck Depression Inventory scores. The study concluded that antidepressant medication had the most rapid effect, but after sixteen weeks exercise was equally effective in reducing symptoms of major depressive disorder. Article 3 (Brenes et al 1999) conducted a pilot study designed as a randomized clinical trial to test the feasibility and efficacy of an exercise program and antidepressant treatment compared with usual care in improving emotional and physical functioning in older adults with minor depression. A total of thirty seven participants aged over sixty five were randomized to treatment: fourteen to exercise, eleven to sertraline and twelve to usual care. Patients who received either exercise or sertraline treatments demonstrated improvement both in clinician led and self reported measures of depressive symptoms. Those participants who received the usual package care experienced small or no improvement in mental state. There are some limitations to this study however. The sample size was small and thus the statistical power was weak. The diagnosis of minor depression was based on self diagnosis rather than clinical interview. It was also not stated in the report what the usual care was. Ther e were however significant trends to suggest that sertraline and exercise could be used as treatments for mild depression in older adults, and that a more in depth study should be undertaken. Article 4 (Kerse et al 2010) published a study comparing the effects of a home based exercise program with regular social contact in improving function, quality of life and mood in older people with depressive symptoms. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in which one hundred and ninety three people aged over seventy five with depressive symptoms received either an individualized physical activity program or social visits delivered over six months. The social visits were of the same time span as the exercise program. Outcome measures were obtained at three, six and twelve months. Both physical and mental well being was measured using a variety of techniques including a short function test, and the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale (Nouri Lincoln 1987). It was concluded that a structured activity program improved mood and quality of life for older people with depressive symptoms as much as the effect of social visits. There was however no control group bein g measured that was receiving usual care. Article 5 (Mather et al 2002) set out to determine whether exercise is effective as an adjunct to antidepressant therapy in reducing depressive symptoms in older people. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in which eighty six participants aged between fifty three and ninety one already receiving anti depressant therapy were given either exercise classes or health education talks over a ten week period. Assessments were made blind at baseline, ten and thirty four weeks using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression as the primary outcome. At ten weeks a significantly higher proportion of the exercise group (55% compared with 33%) experienced a greater than 30% decline in depression. In an article in The British Journal of Psychiatry in 2002, Jagadheesan et al critiqued this study and stated that it could have been more meaningful if a control group had been added which received no additional treatment other than continuing antidepressants. (Jagadheesan et al 2002). The majority of research above suggests that physical exercise reduces depression and depressive symptoms in the short term in older adults, but additional well controlled studies are required to determine the long term efficacy. A systematic review carried out by Sjosten Kivela supports these findings (Sjosten Kivela 2002). Direct comparisons between studies is difficult as they differ greatly in characteristics, nature of control comparison group, age of the participants, type and intensity of exercise and outcome measures used to follow up. National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines are set out to assist clinicians and patients in making decisions about appropriate treatment for specific conditions. The guidelines for depression suggest that for particularly for patients with mild or moderate depressive disorders, structured and supervised exercise can be an effective intervention that has a clinically significant impact on depressive symptoms. There is also evidence to suggest that individuals with low mood may also benefit from structured and supervised exercise. (NICE 2005). Conclusion Physical exercise is clinically beneficial in the short term for treatment of depressive symptoms in older people. Exercise, although not appropriate for all older persons with depression, may improve mood in this group. Evidence of the cost effectiveness of providing exercise interventions would be beneficial in helping decision making regarding service use and delivery. More well designed research studies are needed to examine the medium and long term benefits of exercise as a treatment for depressive symptoms in older adults, and to examine the types and duration of interventions that have the most positive effect. Word Count 3008 References Age Concern (2007) Mental Health Services Letting Down Older People. [On Line] Available at http://www.ageuk.org.uk/ [Accessed 12 May 2010] London: Age Concern. Alexopoulos, G.S., Buckwalter, K., Olin, J., Martinez, R., Wainscott, C., Krishnan, K.R. (2002) Comorbidity of late-life depression: an opportunity for research in mechanisms and treatment. Biol Psychiatry 2002; 52:543-58. Blake, H., Mo, P., Malik, S., Thomas, S. (2009) How Effective are Physical Activity Interventions for Alleviating Depressive Symptoms in Older People? A Systematic Review Clinical Rehabilitation 2009; 23: 873-887 Blazer, D.G. (2003) Depression in late life: review and commentary. J Gerontol Med Sci 2003; 56A: 249-65. 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Mental Health Foundation (2007) Depression and Suicide in Later Life [On Line] Available at http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/information/mental-health-a-z/depression-and-suicide-in-later-life/?locale=en [Accessed 12 May 2010] London: Mental Health Foundation National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2005) Depression: Management of depression in primary and secondary care National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2007) Developing Clinical Questions [Online] Available at: http://www.nice.org.uk/niceMedia/pdf/GuidelinesManualChapter5.pdf [Accessed 8 May 2010] NHS Choices (2010) Treating Depression [On Line] Available at http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/depression/pages/treatment.aspx [Accessed 16 May 2010] Nouri, F.M. Lincoln, N.B. (1987) An Extended Activities of Daily Living Index for stroke patients. Clinical Rehabilitation 1987; 1:301-5. Osborn, P.J., Fletcher, A.E., Smeeth, L., Stirling, S., Bulpitt, C., Nunes, M., Breeze, E., Edmond, S.W.Ng., Jones, D., Tulloch, A. (2003) Performance of a single screening question for depression in a representative sample of 13,670 people aged 75 and over in the UK: Results from the MRC trial of assessment and management of older people in the community. Family Practice; 20: 6, 682-684 Palsson, S., Ostling, S., Skoog, I. (2001) The incidence of first onset depression in a population followed from the age of 70 to 85.Psychol Med 2001; 31: 1159-68. Polit, D.F., Beck, C.T., and Hungler, B.P. (2001) Essentials of nursing research methods, appraisal and utilisation. (5th Ed.) Philadelphia; Lippincott. Sibbald, B. Roland, M. (1998) Understanding controlled trials: Why are randomised controlled trials important? BMJ 1998; 316:201 (17Ã January) Sjosten, N., Kivela, S.L., (2006) The effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms among the aged: a systematic review. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 May; 21(5):410-8 Teresi, J., Abrams, R., Holmes, D., Ramirez, M., Eimicke, J. (2001) Prevalence of depression and depression recognition in nursing homes. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2001; 36: 613-29. Thames Valley University (2010a) Library Services Databases A-Z [Online] Available at: http://lrs.tvu.ac.uk/eresources/atozlist.jsp?id= [Accessed 2nd May 2010] Thames Valley University (2010b) Library Services Databases A-Z [Online] Available at: http://lrs.tvu.ac.uk/eresources/atozlist.jsp?id= [Accessed 2nd May 2010] Timmins, F. McCabe, C. (2005) How to conduct an effective literature search Nursing Standard November 23: vol 20 no 11 Appendix 1 Copies of Search Strategies
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The Great Depression was an absolute economic disaster that occurred after the big stock market crash of 1929. This crashed occurred mainly because of all the excitement caused by the Roaring Twenties. Popular items like automobiles and household appliances ended up being produced in much greater quantities than were being sold. The current president of the United States, Herbert Hoover, was not succeeding at all in putting an end to The Great Depression. All Americans were desperate to find someone who would aid them in climbing out the great sink hole that was the stability of the United States. Thankfully, for them, Mr. HooverÃ¢â¬â¢s successor will be the man to do the trick of bringing America out of that hole. The First and Second New Deals were responses to the worst economic tragedy in American history. Without these deals, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy would have been disastrous for much longer and could have easily had a role on our economic stability today. After taking oath of office on March 4, 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt knew that he was going to have a lot on his presidential plate. At this point in time, the economy was almost to the point of completely collapsing. Roosevelt grew up in a rich family and was never one that ever had to work just to make ends meet. He was quite intelligent, graduating from Harvard. He is known for having a charming personality and he knew how to persuade anyone to get what he wanted done accomplished. After graduating from Harvard, he started a career in banking and then went on to become the governor of New York in 1928. So, he was more than qualified for the presidency and many had faith that he could play a big role in saving AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. On March 5, 1933, one day after taking oath, Roos... ...f The Great Depression. Roosevelt and his administrations efforts simply put people back to work helped stabilize the economy and gave Americans hope. Some parts of the New Deals were successful, some were not so much so. All of these acts are also responsible for providing an infrastructure to the current economic system of America and it also provided smaller things like great roads, bridges and dams to greater acts like Social Security. RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s reforms put an end to many disasters but on the other hand, he knew there were problems that he could not change so he left them be. His efforts were so well-known and praised that after he ran for election again in 1936, he beat the Republican Party by a landslide which showed that the Americans supported him and his great actions. He deserves most, if not all of the credit for the successes of the American economy.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Plato believed that the world as we see it, is not real but a more illusion, a copy of the real world to be more precise. Take for example if you look at rose or at a woman and you think they are both beautiful, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s manifesting herself in those object, so the idea in this case pure beauty. So according to plato we are not really living in the real world, when we look at a rose or at a woman we are only seeing at a copy of real beauty. So when plato wrote about the cave, he said that man is chained in such a manner that they face only the shadows of anything that is passing by outside the cave. Because the man has only seen these shadows, he will take it as the real things. So if the man sees the shadow of a tree, because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the only thing he has seen he will think itÃ¢â¬â¢s a real tree. The only way to become unchained Plato thought, was to begin to see the real nature of things through the mindÃ¢â¬â¢s eye. But Plato belived that no one could be taught, they had to see reality for themselves, at most they could only be directed by people who had already been there. Plato continues that when someone sees the real world for the first time, it will be to bright for the person and will be confused, but only after spending some time his mind like the eyes will adjust to the light. In the movie this is more or less what happens to Neo, he is trapped in an illusion, he thinks itÃ¢â¬â¢s real because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the only thing he has seen. He cannot be told what the matrix is he has to see it for himself, when he first sees it he cannot believe it, but eventually accepts it, and so forth. Both PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Cave and the Matrix play with the question are we awake? Both contend that humanity is asleep. Both Plato and the Matrix contend that given everyday world is illusionary. Plato because for him the real world are the form beyond the senses and everyday experience are just shadows on the cave wall. The Matrix presents an substratum a real world open rationing underground. And The prisoner who lives the cave, comes into the sun and their eyes are blinded by the light. The same can be seen when neo first came out of the matrix and said my eyes. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t see. Another of the similitaries is that in the Cave is some Light, the fire which cast the shadows of the puppets on the walls. This Light can be seen as an small aspect of the sun, small aspect of the Truth. It can be said, that there is Truth beyond the illusion, as its source is the Light. The same in the Matrix, the source of the Matrix is in the real world, only difference is that people are the Light of the matrix since they created it. And was told thatÃ¢â¬â¢s because you have never used them before. Another similitaries is that in the Cave the prisoners never used their eyes truly, they were always in the darkness where they could not see behind themselves to see what was the source of the shadows, in fact their eyes were only adjusted/conditioned to the dimness of the Cave to the degree that when one of the prisoners left the cave and saw the outside their eyes were blinded, having never seen it before, or in the matrix having never used their eyes before. The other diference are that Matrix is more political than mystical as in Plato vision. The philosophical view of the nature of reality as seen in the matrix and the allegory of the cave are the Artificial Intelligence machines are the puppeteers, tricking the humans into believing the Matrix is actual reality. The humans that are imprisoned in the Matrix are like the prisoners in the cave. Neo is the prisoner that is freed from the cave into the true reality of the world. The Matrix is the cave, the real world is existence outside the cave. If i compare these views Descartes poses the question of how he can know with certainty that the world he experiences is not an illusion being forced upon him by an evil demon. He reasons since he believes in what he sees and feels while dreaming, he cannot trust his senses to tell him that he is not still dreaming. His senses cannot provide him with proof that the world even exists. DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ evil demon is vividly realized in the Matrix films as the artificial intelligence that forces a virtual reality on humans. Just as Descartes realized that the sensations in his dreams were vivid enough to convince him the dreams were real, the humans who are plugged into the Matrix have no idea that their sensations are false, created artificially instead of arising from actual experiences. Until Neo is yanked from the Matrix, he, too, has no idea that his life is a virtual reality. Like Descartes, Neo eventually knows to take nothing at face value, and to question the existence of even those things, such as chairs, that seem most real. I think that the scenario that is shown in The matrix CouldÃ¢â¬â¢t happen. because there cant be transported from one world to another through the phone, and cant be alive in two equal bodies in two places are just illucions that in real life can not pass never.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Facing poverty with a Rich girls habits Essays Facing poverty with a Rich girls habits Paper Facing poverty with a Rich girls habits Paper Suck Kim, the writer of Facing Poverty with a Rich Girls Habits, attempts to narrate the struggles of switching from a lavish upbringing to a poverty stricken lifestyle. She tells the story of how her family was forced to move to the slums of Queens from South Korea after her fathers businesses plummeted financially. She was forced to learn many skills that would help her survive In this foreign place she had just entered. Things like learning to relate to other people her age, going to the Laundromat, and riding public transportation were all things she had to get used to. Also, she describes how school life was so different from back home. Kids were Infinitely divided by social class and sometimes even ethnicity. She states how teachers werent as respected In America as they were In South Korea. She felt Like the only place where she could truly express herself were her E. S. L classes. Small remarks of racism from her classmates such as FOB (fresh off the boat) TLD seem to nerve her probably because she didnt know what these words meant at the time. Another problem was learning to do tasks on her own. Things Like doing homework without help from someone and cleaning without maids were not things she was accustomed to. She battled an inner conflict with race. When she came to America not only did she become Asian, but also a minority. Since everyone in South Korea was the same skin tone or race it wasnt very easy to discriminate. However in the Unites States, its usual for one person or even a few people to be singled out.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
HARLEY REVS UP ITS ENGINES essays Teerlink knew that the best way to improve quality and reliability and lower production costs was to create an environment where everyone took responsibility for the companys present and future. Of course, such an approach would not come naturally to Harley. The previous crisis had been managed with an unmistakable topdown approach, as is often the case with turnarounds. But times had changed. Employees could no longer be privates, taking orders and operating within strict limits. So Teerlink flattened the corporate hierarchy and established teams of cross-functional leaders to work collaboratively and provide senior leadership with direction. This is the structure under which Harley currently operates. At the heart of the organizational structure are three cross-functional teams called Circles-the Create Demand Circle, the Produce Product Circle, and the Provide Support Circle. Each Circle includes design engineers, purchasing professionals, manufacturing personnel, marketing personnel, and others. The cross-functional teams are responsible for every motorcycle produced by Harley-from product conception to final design. Within each team, the leadership role moves from person to person, depending on the issue being addressed. Recognizing that suppliers input is crucial to Harleys new product development, all cross-functional teams include key suppliers who work elbow-to-elbow with Harley personnel. Suppliers are the experts. They have expertise I not only what theyre developing today but also whats going on in their industry, says one Harley purchasing director. The more input we have up front, the better our products will be. Cross-functional teamwork has indeed paid off for Harley. With record profits and a good chance of soon reaching their annual production goal of 200,000 bikes, the companys 6,000-plus employees hav ...
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Culture and Communication Research Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words
Culture and Communication Research Paper - Essay Example Christianity is one of many religions which thrive in that country. The people are spiritually minded. Hinduism is the religion of the majority with 82% of Indians being Hindus. 12.1% of Indians are Muslims. Those officially following Christianity form a meager 2.3% (Census of India, 2001). For a follower of Jesus (which is what we mean from now on as 'Christian') it is a command and an obligation to share the gospel with others who do not know. According to Mark chapter 16 and verse 15, Jesus has commanded us to 'go into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature'. Yet in a country like India which is deeply entrenched in spirituality there are tremendous challenges to the credibility of the gospel message. We will look at the communication of this message primarily among the Hindus in India The popular perception in India is that Christianity was brought into the country by foreign missionaries who came along with the British East India Company in the early 1700s. The British eventually captured and ruled the country till the mid 1900s. As Wikipedia the online encyclopedia states about that time: "Imbued with an ethnocentric sense of superiority, often known as the White Man's Burden, British intellectuals, including Christian missionaries, sought to bring Western intellectual and technological innovations to Indians, ignoring the fact that the Indian Christian tradition went back to the very beginnings of first century Christian thought" (Wikipedia contributors) Hence although untrue, there is a sense that Christianity is a foreign religion. The fact that the West is predominantly Christian contributes to this perception. Money from the West that has traditionally come in for evangelistic and missionary campaigns also fuels the perception that the financial base of Christianity in India is abroad. As Astrid Lobo Gajiwala an Indian Christian activist writes, ".They just don't see Christians as Indians; they see us as an alien 'other', minions of a white, Christian world that is synonymous with spiritual and racial chauvinism (1998)." Language and attire incompatibility. It cannot be denied that western influence has permanently crept into Indian Christianity. Christian worship is conducted in many languages but English is predominant among them. The exceptions to this are the Tamil, Malayalam and Latin languages which may be more popular in the respective states (Latin is used in Orthodox churches). English has never been in the scheme of things for Hindu worship or religious literature until recently. Christian communities especially Roman Catholics and Goans have predominantly English names and western attire. The communication at home among these communities is predominantly in English. Songs and music Music used for Christian worship has its influence in the West. The songs sung in church are either hymns composed by English or American songwriters in English or contemporary songs again composed in the West in English. Churches depicted in Hindi movies usually have a church organ playing in the background. Local worship songs have begun to gain in popularity but this is a recent though
Friday, November 1, 2019
Consumer Perception - Essay Example Advancement and changes have become a part of our lives and world is getting advance day by day as per needs. There have been times when inventions have astonished us as many impossible things have become reality as any dream has become truth. Truth has always seemed as stranger than fiction and science has proved this fact (02whole). Many companies and product ranges have emerged to prove this fact and have benefited our lives. There are certain goods and products which have confronted our perceptions as they seemed unachievable or impossible to create but since technological advancement has taken place, all things have become possible. One such object in my mind is a personal robot that can not only do all the work being fed in its memory but can also predict and pursue human mind. Human perceives that computers and automated devices can only perform tasks which are already fed in the memory of the device but this robot will actually challenge the perception of human mind. I feel it will be unique in a sense that its sensor would have the capability of detecting the prospective future. There are many products which has made lives easier and quicker but the unique feature of this product is to function in a way that future tasks are also expected through the usage of sensors (flicker man made things). People hav e a mind set of getting attracted to things which are designed very well but features of this product will overwhelm the perceptions of all. Such products are made to provide a stage ahead of what people are already using. It is one of those consumer products which is actually conceptualized keeping in mind the mind set and trend adopted by the people since past few years. Consumer products have been evolving from stage to stage and have reached a top level of providing satisfaction to all. This is possible due to survey and research of consumer demands and their likings. Research helps manufacturers and companies to predict what sort of ease and benefit a customer is looking towards from a particular product. However, consumers have always looked for better options for themselves based on satisfaction level and ease. It is very important for a manufacturer to know what features or functions are expected out of its product as the whole activity of creating any product is to provide it with full satisfaction to its potential buyers. Manufacturers need to be cautious as they need to make analysis of what is required by the customer, as any wrong step or decision can make their work gone to rust. One of the important reasons in this regard is that people around the world are of different from each other. Their likings and disliking, their prospect towards things, their choices etc are all different as everybody belongs to different ethnic backgrounds and most of all have different exposures. It is very important to first make segments of the potential market and then to introduce any product in a based on that segmentation. Segmentation helps in dividing the markets based on the needs of cust omers which help the manufacturers to make available those products and goods which are actually required by them. It is also very important fo