Friday, December 27, 2019

Apollo 11 Landing a Man on the Moon

In July  1969 the world watched as NASA  launched three men on a trip to land on the Moon. The mission was called Apollo 11. It was the culmination of a series of Gemini launches to Earth orbit, followed by Apollo  missions. In each one, astronauts tested and practiced the actions they needed  to make a trip to the Moon and come back safely.   Apollo 11 was launched on top of the of the most powerful rockets ever designed: the Saturn V. Today they are museum pieces, but back in the days of the Apollo  program, they were THE way to get to space.   First Steps The trip to the Moon was a first for the U.S., which was locked in a battle for space supremacy with the former Soviet Union  (now the Russian Federation).  The so-called Space Race began when the Soviets launched Sputnik on October 4, 1957. They followed up with other launches and succeeded in putting the first person in space, astronaut Yuri Gagarin, on April 12, 1961. The U.S. president John F. Kennedy upped the stakes by announcing on September 12, 1962, that the countrys fledgling space program would put a man on the Moon by the end of the decade. The most quoted part of his speech asserted as much:   We choose to go to the Moon. We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things not because they are easy, but because they are hard... That announcement set in place a race to bring the best scientists and engineers together. That required science education and a scientifically literate populace. And, by the end of the decade, when Apollo 11 touched down on the Moon, much of world was aware of the methods of space exploration. The mission was incredibly difficult. NASA had to build and launch a safe vehicle containing three astronauts. The  same command and lunar modules had to cross the distance between Earth and the Moon: 238,000 miles (384,000 kilometers). Then, it  had to be inserted into orbit around the Moon. The  lunar module had to separate and head for the lunar surface. After executing their surface mission, the astronauts had to return to lunar orbit and rejoin the command module for the trip back to Earth. The actual landing on the Moon on July 20th turned out to be more dangerous than everyone expected. The chosen landing site in Mare Tranquilitatis (Sea of Tranquility)  was covered with boulders.  Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin had to maneuver to find a good place. (Astronaut Michael Collins stayed in orbit in the Command Module.)  With just a few seconds of fuel left, they landed safely and broadcast their first greeting back to a waiting Earth with Neil Armstrongs famous announcement that he and Aldrin were representing all mankind.   One Small Step... A few hours later, Neil Armstrong took the first steps out of the lander and onto the surface of the Moon. It was a momentous event watched by millions of people around the world. For most in the U.S., it was affirmation that the country had won the Space Race.   The Apollo 11 mission astronauts did the first science experiments on the Moon and gathered a collection of lunar rocks to bring back for study on Earth. They reported on what it was like to live and work in the lower gravity of the Moon, and gave people the first up-close look at our neighbor in space. And, they set the stage for more Apollo missions to explore the lunar surface.   Apollos Legacy The legacy of the Apollo 11 mission continues to be felt. Mission preparations and practices created for that trip are still in use, with modifications and refinements by astronauts around the world. Based on the first rocks brought back from the Moon, planners for such missions as LROC and LCROSS were able to plan their science investigations. We have an International Space Station, thousands of satellites in orbit, robot spacecraft have traversed the solar system to study distant worlds up close and personal. The space shuttle program, developed during the last years of the  Apollo  Moon  missions, took hundreds of people to space and accomplished great things. The astronauts and space agencies of other countries learned from NASA — and NASA learned from them as time went by. Space exploration began to feel more multi-cultural, which continues today. Yes, there were tragedies along the way: rocket explosions, fatal shuttle accidents, and launchpad deaths. But, the space agencies of the world learned from those mistakes and used their knowledge to advance their launch systems.   The most enduring return from the Apollo 11 mission is the knowledge that when humans put their minds to do a difficult project in space, they can do it. Going to space creates jobs, advances knowledge, and changes human beings. Every country with a space program knows this.  The technical expertise, the educational boosts, the increased interest in space are, in large part, legacies of the Apollo 11 mission. The first steps of July 20-21, 1969 reverberate from that time to this.   Edited by Carolyn Collins Petersen.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Social Justice And Special Needs Students - 2037 Words

WHAT CAN BE DONE: EDUCATION AND SOCIAL JUSTICE Social Justice and Special Needs Students in Cameroon Introduction Social justice A general definition of social justice is hard to arrive at and even harder to implement. In essence, social justice is concerned with equal justice, not just in the courts, but in all aspects of society. This â€Å"concept demands that people have equal rights and opportunities; everyone, from the poorest person on the margins of society to the wealthiest deserves an even playing field† ( Sturman (1997) notes that theorising about social justice is reflected in recent debates about equity and equality, adding ‘the concept of â€Å"social justice† ... is not clearly defined (in fact, the term is often used as a synonym for â€Å"equal† opportunities or â€Å"equity†)’ (p.1). Thus, the notion of equity often replaces politically motivated conceptions of equality, and social justice reframed in this way is deemed as necessary for democratic life (Theophanous, 1994). This element of social justi ce involves recognition that there will always be some people in society who will need a lot of support and assistance, no matter how much education, training, encouragement or coercion is provided. There are people who have severe difficulties in understanding or communicating or organising their daily lives. This includes many people with a mental illness, other disabilities, literacy problems and other learning difficultiesShow MoreRelatedThe Education Of The Middle School857 Words   |  4 PagesMiddle school was roughly the first time I truly became aware of social justice in the world. It was probably the first real time I realized that the world wasn’t fair and that equal opportunities were not available for everybody. Around the time of Barraack Obama’s first term our country went into a recession and unemployment was high. I watched my friend’s mom become unemployed because the company could not afford to have her as an employee anymore. My family was not affected hard at the beginningRead MoreEssay On Social Justice1369 Words   |  6 PagesSocial justice refers to equality on a larger, group scale. Inequalities in society prevent true social justice. The goal of social justice is to create a more just society by exploring our individual roles and consciously recognizing the unjust structures around us, then taking action to alleviate or eradicate those structures. Social justice is working toward social change. These inequalities can be seen in instances of income disparity, sex or gender based prejudice, racial discriminationRead MoreThe Gap Between Upper And Lower Class Essay1263 Words   |  6 Pagesgap is by increasing achievement among students. Achievement is a relative concept linked to individual circumstances. Whatever the learning objective, reaching a goal is always an achievement. To increase achievement, we need to ensure all students have access to high quality education regardless of their needs and backgrounds (social justice). Social Justice and Inclusion We look at Social Justice and its’ effect on Students; are the areas where students born, nurtured and educated impactingRead MoreThe Hidden Curriculum, And The Way That Social Classes Work Within The School System1512 Words   |  7 Pages I’m very interested in the hidden curriculum, and the way that social classes work within the school system. There are schools that are more privileged depending on distribution, areas and boards. I’m interested in the idea that the values that are represented to students can be effected by the social class; not of the students, but of the over-all school. In this article, personal experiences are discussed and the schools are â€Å"rated† by classes. It is an interesting concept and the correlationRead MoreSchools In The Present-Day Society Are Constantly Shifting1294 Words   |  6 Pagesbenefits and advances that a program like this could bring. The enactment of inclusion is heavily connected by all students, teachers and parent’s attitudes whether they are voiced positively or negatively. Even though inclusion in classrooms is growing rapidly, there is little data to support its effectiveness. The lack of evidence may be because inclusion is beneficia l to a child s social and reading skills more so than any other area. To have inclusion implemented correctly is important for the teachingRead MoreLearning Disablilites and Delinquency from our Juveniles1823 Words   |  7 Pagesor uneducated youth is arrested and is incarcerated. I argue that our failure to properly address the special needs of our diverse learning disabled children leads to poor school performance, and in a high number of cases juvenile delinquency. Unfortunately, the learning disability rate among delinquent youth is between 30% and 50%, this is in contrast to the number of special education students represented in public school, which is 10% nationally. The stark difference in the percentage of delinquencyRead MoreTeaching Reading Comprehension Strategies For Middle School Aged Students With Specific Learning Disabilities889 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction My topic of study is focused on teaching reading comprehension strategies to middle school aged students with specific learning disabilities and other low achieving readers in a special education setting. This medication in my plan has come because I have accepted a job teaching special needs students at Parkview Middle School, in Jeffersonville Indiana. I will be teaching reading, and social studies in a resource setting and math in collaborative setting. Goals of Teacher Leadership My goalsRead MoreWhy Are Schools Brain Washing Our Children?867 Words   |  4 Pagestaking social justice positions learned in school, it is hard for society to decide whether social justice should be apart of the curriculum. Cynthia Reynolds, author of Maclean’s article Why are schools brain washing our children, explores the topic of social justice in our education system. The introduction to the article is set up with examples of extreme examples of social justice in education, calling them the â€Å"by products of [†¦] an elementary school education rooted in social-justice principles†Read MoreWhy Ut Nor Atm Would Slingshot Me Into A Career Of Law Enforcement1532 Words   |  7 Pagesplacing students in the Texas workforce within twelve months of graduation and over 71% of undergraduate degrees are awarded to â€Å"At Risk† students. One of 311 colleges and universities in the nation designated as a â€Å"Community Engaged University† by the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. Some of the scholarships that SHSU offers are the Brandon Ashley Memorial Scholarship: It is available to a senior majoring in Criminal Justice who plans to pursue a career in law enforcement. Students must maintainRead MoreA Comparative Study of the Field Criminal Justice and Criminology1314 Words   |  6 PagesFields Criminal Justice and Cri minology Javier Landa-Miranda Ivy Tech Community College CRIM 101 What is Criminal Justice and what is Criminology? They are the same? Those are the questions that people ask their selves when they talk about those fields. There might be many controversies about the differences and similarities about Criminal Justice and Criminology. People must think that these two fields are totally different or just the same thing. The reality is that Criminal Justice and Criminology

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

The Moonstone Essay Example For Students

The Moonstone Essay Since the beginning of time, man has used various methods on which to pass down stories,beliefs, and myths which explain different aspects of life. From oral tradition, topictographs, to clay tablets, and onto paper, all compose the world of literature. Literaturehas always been an infinite realm of ideas, morals, and trains of thought. Although thesphere of literature is encircled with extreme diversity of thought, its core is focused onone theme: man. All literature carries with itself three main characteristics: it is written byman, for man, and about man. Oedipus the King, the great Greek tragedy by theunparalleled philosopher, Sophocles, is no exception to literatures domain. It deals withone king, Oedipus, and his plight to avenge the death of his predecessor, King Laios. Inhis determined search to find the murderer, he establishes a proclamation which woulddemand the banishment and even the death of the murderer. In his ironic action, the readerdiscovers that this murderer tha t Oedipus is so determined to discover is none other thanOedipus himself. In adhesion to the definition of literature, this tragic plot reveals to thereader three main commentaries about the nature of man: man cannot escape his past,pride is the sin which leads man to greater evils, and although the life of man is in itself apositive good, there will always be a shadow of terrible tragedy that falls across it. All throughout literature, many works have portrayed characters who carry withthem a dark and gloomy past, and try to tear this shameful history of their lives from thebooks of their life. Unfortunately, this is impossible due to the fact that the past is aprecursor to the present which, in turn, determines ones future. It is ones past that makesone what he or she is today. For example, if an individual committed ruthless acts such astheft or murder, was not caught by the law, and later realizes that that particular aspect ofhis or her life has caused them great grief and regret, he or she will make the effort tochange and become a new individual. Let us say that individual becomes one who caresabout the welfare of others and takes social action against the injustices of society. Thisindividual became what he or she is today because of an incident which occurred in his ofher past. This catching up of the past need not always be negative and be portrayed assome type of revenge infrin ged upon the individual possibly due to a vile incident in thepast, but the past will always effect the future and its toll is inevitable. As proclaimed by the Catholic church in the middle ages, seven deadly sins existwhich ultimately lead to the loss of salvation by the soul which indulges in such evils. Ofthe seven, pride has been the one which serves as the catalyst for the remaining six. Pridecreates in an individual a disposition of excessive self-love and the need to be better thananother. Once a person has excessive pride, he or she must have the satisfaction ofknowing they are better and must prove this higher status through material possessionsand/or power. This has led to the next sin, greed. This domino effect will continue on untilthe individual recognizes his or her faults and reconciles, or until he or she has immersedthemselves in the totality of evil and suffers the consequences through death or horriblesuffering. As evidenced in this work, pride was one of the factors which helped to createthe tragic plot of the story. Both King Laios and Oedipus exhibited the characteristics ofpride. When King Laios was traveling down the path where the three roads met, he andhis men encountered a man walking alongside named Oedipus. King Laios, in his need toshow he was more powerful and of a higher status, requested his men to run Oedipus offthe road. Oedipus was angered by this show of egotism, and in his need to show he wasnot someone who would take such an act, he went as far as to kill all but one of thetraveling party, even the king himself. This show of pride, in the fulfillment the prophecy,contributed to the downfall of the protagonist and set the stage for the plot. .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed , .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed .postImageUrl , .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed , .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed:hover , .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed:visited , .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed:active { border:0!important; } .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed:active , .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u681898e2370c062d1efb5b63eeed81ed:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Smoking is the most important single preventable c Essay Man, through the definition of literature, is a fallible creature who is susceptible tothe temptations of the immoral. It is in mans nature for him to err. It is also inconcordance with the very nature of the universe that he should suffer for the actions ofhis errors. This brings into view the third commentary about man and his existence: thatalthough the life of man is in itself a positive good, there will always be a shadow ofterrible tragedy that falls across it. This shadow is always cast by either or both of twodifferent bodies: an unconscious error committed by an individual, and/or an errorcommitted due to so me flaw in mans nature. In this Greek tragedy, the protagonistsuffered through an aspect of his own nature which in Greek is called hubris, or as todayssociety knows it, the deadly sin of pride. His pride led him to act irrationally in the incidentat the place where three roads met, where he unknowingly committed the act of regicide,and later realizes that he also has committed parricide, and fulfilled the prophecy of hisdestiny. Man himself is not omnipotent, but a fragile, mortal being who unavoidably must As in all literature, the main objective which exudes from each literary workapplies itself to the existence of man. In the Greek tragedy, Oedipus the King, threedissertations of human nature are exhibited. These three are: man cannot escape his past,pride is the sin which leads man to greater evils, and although the life of man is in itself apositive good, there will always be a shadow of terrible tragedy that falls across it. Theplot in this renowned Greek tragedy emphasizes t he role of literature. With the protagonisthaving to suffer for the acts he committed in his past, to the flaw of pride which led him tocommit the act, and finally, to the consequences he had to suffer due to his actions, itclearly states and exhibits how the actions of the characters in this story pertain to thecommon individual not of only the society of Sophocles time, but also to the individual ofBibliography:

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Television, What A Waste of Timme Essay Example For Students

Television, What A Waste of Timme Essay Television, What A Waste of TimmeHow much does television mean to you? Would you sacrifice your mind, yourhealth, and your well-being just to keep ahold of it? Most people would. Theyare unaware of the severe effects that TV has on our lives and on our future. Ithink that television should be banned from all American households because ofthe negative ideas it exploits, the creative minds it destroys, and the growingamount of kids and adults that are making this place a bigger and lazier country. In the last decade, the amount of vioilence on television has greatly increasedand so has the number of senseless homicides and suicides in our country. Thepromiscuity and violence shown regularly on household televisions has intriguesus as Americans and numbed our sense of whats right and whats wrong in society. What shocked us at first has now become customary dinner-time cinema. We will write a custom essay on Television, What A Waste of Timme specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now With the increase in the number of television sets in America, more and moreyoung people have been robbed of their creativity. With TV, hardly anything isleft to the imagination. Before the existence of television, all people wreforced to create their own opinions and images of things in their own minds. But with TV, all the images are created for you and almost all the arguments areone-sided. With TV, you no longer create your own ideas; you are told them. Television has a great impact on the health of America. The seductive topicsand biased broadcasts shows daily across America are luring more and more peopleto the confines of their living room couch for a greater amount of time. Inactivity and overeating are a common result of this decision made by adultsand kids alike. Perhaps this is the reason why America is one of the fattestcountries in the world. Television is slowly and subliminally taking its toll on America. It isstealing all of the things that are most precious to usour mind, body, andsoul. If you rely on television for all your entertainment, I think that youwould be way better off looking for it within yourself and the people around you.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Black Codes Essay Example

Black Codes Essay Ryan Fagan U. S. History Honors Bushong 4/27/12 How did the Black Codes prevent the immediate integration of the freed black men into society? Written pages: 5 The Civil War caused many issues for American Society, from the physical separation of the southern states, to the issue of ending slavery, being the most well known, and for good reason. While the north wanted the slaves to be free, the south did not, which obviously caused Problems. This topic of free vs. slavery did not begin after the war started though, the government had dealt with many different cases and often the ended in favor of slavery. After the Civil War the issues with slavery still existed because of the creation of Black Codes, codes that basically forced the â€Å"free† men to report to a white employer or supervisor who decided what they could and could not do freely. These are just few of many reasons that the integration of freed black men, and men of color, took almost a century after the day they were legally released to truly have their freedom. One of the many reasons that the integration of the freed men into society was not more immediate was because of the stance of the national government before the war. We will write a custom essay sample on Black Codes specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Black Codes specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Black Codes specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The north may have not been slave states, but when it came to helping a slave in need, they were not going to be the ones to lend a hand. The Dred Scott case is a prime example of this stance. In this case a slaved argues that his owner moved from a slave state to a free state, thereby causing him to become a free citizen of society. This case was extremely controversial. While on one hand the slave made a point, the other hand caused the government to deny his request for freedom, without real rational reason. When the government’s stance changed and Abraham Lincoln became president, the newly elected president caused the country to go to war with itself because of his public stance on slavery. This tragic event caused the south to secede from the United States and form their own government. Of course the sole issue of the south’s secession was not the loss of slavery, but also had an economic aspect as well. When the Civil War was over, it was quite obvious that the southern states still had a deep and powerful hatred for anyone of color. This hatred, as mentioned before, is the primary reason for the southern states creating the Black Codes. Not only did the Black Codes cause issues between the southern ex-slave owners and their freed slaves, but it also caused a great number of issues in the northern states. The northern states saw these Black Codes as an unfair and cruel way of bringing back slavery. Primarily because in the southern states state government, the white legislators saw no real reason to end the inequality between the white men, and the men of color (Constitutional rights foundation, 2011). Without establishing a new state of mind the governments in the southern states would continue to make these laws, leaving the federal government unable to make any real changes to ensure the well being of the men of color. This only delayed the integration of the men of color into society even longer, because the relationship between the state governments and the national governments were too fragile at this point in time to make anything positive happen. In reviewing the South Carolina Black Codes, it is clear how biased and restricted the everyday lives of the freed men were. In order to integrate into society completely, the freed man would not only need to attempt to change the views of the white men around them, they were still required to follow the Black Codes. Rebellion could only get the freed men so far because they were not permitted to own anything that could be used as a weapon. The South Carolina Black Codes also prevented the migration of freed men to South Carolina without the approval of two South Carolina white men. These white men, known as freeholders, were essentially the people responsible for the freed men, also known as servants, that they approved. After that the Black Codes basically permit slavery to those who take on the responsibility for the freed men. The reason that the free slaves were not able to immediately integrate in society was the Continued existence of the Black Codes. The Black Codes only promoted the previously accepted view of superiority and resulted in lasting conflicts between the races for years. The immediate elimination of the Black Codes would have completely removed any political power that one race would have ad over the other, which in turn would have prevented the conflicts of pride and respect. An immediate overturning of the Black Codes would have also caused the issues of indirect slavery, and violations of rights given to all men by the Bill of Rights and the Constitution. The overall attitude towards freed slaves would have been completely different and would have resulted in a faster change in public opinion and would have allowed the integration of the freed slaves to be much more fluid. Work Cited Black codes and jim crow laws. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. sciway. net/afam/reconstruction/blackcodes. html Constitutional rights foundation. (2011). Retrieved from http://www. crf-usa. org/brown-v-board-50th-anniversary/southern-black-codes. html Herda, D. J. (1948). The dred scott case: Slavery and citizenship  . Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, Inc. The mississippi black code (1865). (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://wps. ablongman. com/long_longman_lahdemo_1/0,8259,1546454-,00. html

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Morrie Riskin essays

Morrie Riskin essays Morris (Morrie) Ryskind was born to Abraham and Ida (Etelson) Ryskind on October 20, 1895 in Brooklyn, New York. Ryskind graduated from Townsend Harris High School in 1912 and from there, went on to Columbia University School of Journalism. At Columbia, Ryskind was the editor of The Jester. This publication was (and still is) the campus' humor magazine. In this publication, Ryskind had the ability to poke fun at issues and, also, people. However, a published editorial of his in 1917 post-poned his college graduation. Six weeks before he was to graduate, Ryskind wrote an editorial in which he referred to the then Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler as "Czar Nicholas." Due to this, Ryskind was expelled. However, he was later awarded his degree in 1942 (The New York Public Library: Digital Library Collection). Though expelled from Columbia, this did not hurt his career as a columnist. Soon after, Ryskind became a reporter for The World until 1921. The year 1921 also brought forth a published work of poetry by Ryskind entitled Unaccustomed As I Am. With this came many printings of his poetry in professional publications. In 1922, Ryskind moved on to try his hand at theater. He was one of the playwrights to write sketches and lyrics for The 49er's and, later, the Garrick Gaieties (1925). These shorts in the Gaieties are what drew the attention of George S. Kaufman. Kaufman asked Ryskind to collaborate on a musical written for the Marx Brothers, Cocoanuts. This 1925 show featured music by Irving Berlin. Ryskind and Kaufman's work in this musical focused on the Florida real estate boom. Groucho portrayed a hotel owner and real estate developer who lacked in mores (Bordman, 408). This show would be the first of many that Ryskind would collaborate on with Kaufman for the Marx Brothers. After Cocoanuts, Ryskind once again wrote sketches and lyrics for a summer review entitled Merry-Go-Round in 1927. On this ...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Does Class Really Matter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Does Class Really Matter - Essay Example Class and money are intertwined since money plays a major role in the identification of a class. This identification, however, is not accurate as the value of humans is equated with money. For instance, the public identifies members of a class by weighing their worth in terms of income and monetary possessions. As much as we would like to shun the class system, the fact remains that it exists and has continued to manifest its effects upon each American who holds the vision of living the American dream. There are various levels of stratification, with a general upper, middle and lower classes. Thus, individuals are limited to interaction within their classes meaning chances of cross-class associations are very thin. This same class segregation has been applied in housing and neighborhoods where each residential zone belongs are occupied by members of the same class. Such has led to a segregated society with less sense of community and togetherness as the classes do not help each other. This segregation as we have learned is called classism. According to, classism is the assigning individuals characteristics systematically based on their ability and worth leading to social classes and differential treatments ( Classism has a great effect on how individuals view themselves, for example, those of lower social class perceive themselves as less fortunate and without any worth to the society. Another aspect the affects people’s perception of themselves a nd others is the nature of the job. For instance, people with jobs of higher status not only earn respect from the society, but also gain self-respect and high self-esteem. Such jobs are also bound to make one happier because of better living standards. It is evident that we, Americans, have come a long way in capitalism. Our culture likes ranking persons in orders of ‘significance’, and our culture enables these classified ‘significant’ individuals flaunt about what

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Discussion Board Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Discussion Board - Research Paper Example Southwest Airlines is one such organization that has focused on the Low Cost Producer Strategy (bags fly free!) in order to compete in the market. Southwest Airlines offers lower cost services to customers and is a low-cost-carrier. Southwest has almost never served a meal to passengers onboard and has cut on many of the other services that most airlines provide. Since the economic turmoil, as airlines started firing employees, Southwest Airlines fired none and rather cut on the salaries of its employees. This increased the employee loyalty towards the company and strengthened the customer base. This flexible nature has enabled Southwest Airlines to purchase the highest number of 737-700s (Bundgaard, Bejjani & Helmer, 2006) The use of information technology has never the less created the risks of security breaches. Online reservation requires passengers to provide credit/debit card details, that customer are hesitant to provide. However, Southwest has made sure that no fraud ever occurs and all reservations are secured. Apple Inc., a renowned American organization specializing in computers, believes in innovation and thus makes use of Differentiation Strategy as its competitive strategy. Apple has pioneered several inventions and come up with PDA’s, iMac, iBook, iTunes, iPod, iPad etc. taking the market by storm. Apple has continued to provide customers innovation when it comes to gadgets and has created some of the finest electronic products. The differentiation strategy creates monopoly and reduces the chances of substitutes taking over. Apple Inc. has hired this policy and thus is able to pass on the costs to customers, without losing customer loyalty. This strategy is viable since Apple has rare competitors who cannot replicate Apple’s market strategy and exploit their sales. Despite strict regulations, Apple has come under numerous security breaches where its data was hacked and

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Human Resources and the Use of Expatriates Research Paper

Human Resources and the Use of Expatriates - Research Paper Example Furthermore, the ever increasing clamor to mind the working conditions of the expatriates living outside their home countries and in the protection of host countries has been especially resonant with the preponderance of dissatisfaction and failure of MNCs to penetrate local markets. But then again, the fact remains that the age of globalization has called for the immediate expansion of business enterprises through a massive branching out process, there appears to be no stopping the affair in the near future. As such, the number of expatriates may be expected to balloon as more and more corporations will join the bandwagon towards globalization. What then remains to be done is to establish a well-regulated system of expatriation that will govern the process for years and years to come. Modern globalized economies have seen it fit to perfect capital expenditure strategies and marketing and advertising techniques to a mindless and robotic insistence. That is, as much variants as these coefficients may throw an entrepreneurs way, they seem to be able to field all pitches and bat out an eventual homerun. With the cutthroat environment that the globalized market has seen fit to establish, skill, education and even technical know-how appears to be less and less of an advantage. In this regard, corporations have considered it as a necessary business objective to not only develop vertically but horizontally, as well. This entails a rabid approach to corporate expansion by seeking ways to concentrate on the establishment of either branches or field offices in other regions or by entering into other related trade. This is in direct contrast to the traditional concept of corporate advancement of mainly improving and sustaining the current business by enacting business policies and programs aimed at becoming an all-enduring and most profitable brand. In today’s epoch, mush of the

Friday, November 15, 2019

Physical Exercise Reduce Symptoms Depression Health And Social Care Essay

Physical Exercise Reduce Symptoms Depression Health And Social Care Essay The aim of this essay will be to discuss and apply selected evidence related to nursing practice within a chosen field. Evidence based practice is an approach used by clinicians to deliver the highest quality care to meet the needs of patients and their families. By finding appraising and using the best evidence, health professionals are able to achieve optimum outcomes for all. (Melnyk Finout-Overholt 2005). However, an alternative view suggests that evidence exists to inform and guide practice rather than dictate it. (McKenna et Al 1999). When clinicians apply an evidence based model, the best available evidence, modified by patient circumstances and preferences, is applied to improve the quality of clinical judgements. (McMaster Clinical Epidemiology Group 1997) A recognised framework will be used to identify a question and then a systematic literature search will be carried out to assist in answering this question. A copy of this search will be provided and search parameters will be applied to gain the most relevant literature. After applying these parameters the search will be narrowed down to the five most relevant pieces of research. A table will be provided to show the key findings from each piece of literature, and one piece of research will then be critiqued in depth using a recognised framework. The question identified in this essay is Can physical exercise or activity help to reduce the symptoms of depression in older adults, compared to other forms of treatment? Background and Formulation of Question The question was devised using the PICO framework. This framework often is used to formulate clinical questions (Craig Smyth 2002), and it identifies and defines the essential components of a good clinical question. PICO is an acronym for patient population of interest, intervention, comparison intervention and outcome (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2007). Patient population of interest shall be older persons diagnosed with depression, intervention shall be physical exercise or activity, the comparison intervention shall be other forms of treatment for depression and the outcome will be a reduction in the symptoms of depression. A well thought out and formulated question maximises the potential for finding relevant evidence for a patient population (Craig Smyth 2002) Depression in older adults refers to depressive syndromes defined in the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) and in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) that arise in people older than age 65 years. In old age, the symptoms of depression often affect people with chronic medical illnesses, cognitive impairment, or disability. (Alexopolous et al 2002). For a major depressive episode to be diagnosed, five of the following symptoms must be present: depressed mood, diminished interest, loss of pleasure in all or almost all activities, weight loss or gain (more than 5% of bodyweight), insomnia or hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue, feeling of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt, reduced ability to concentrate, recurrent thought of death or suicide. At least one of the symptoms must be either depressed mood or diminished interest or pleasure. The episode should last at least 2 weeks, lead to distress or functional impairment, and not be a direct effect of substance use, a medical condition, or bereavement. (Depression Today 2010). Two of the symptoms detailed above must be present for a minor depressive episode to be diagnosed. Between one and four percent of the general elderly population has major depression, and minor depression has a prevalence of between four and thirteen percent (Blazer 2003). Twice as many women as men are affected. Both the prevalence (Palsson et al 2001) and the incidence (Teresi et al 2001) of major depression double after age 70-85 years. Treatment for depression usually involves a combination of anti depressant drugs, talking therapies such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy or Interpersonal Therapy and self help. (NHS Choices 2010). A recent review concluded that physical exercise programmes can obtain have a beneficial effect on depressive symptoms in older people. Although not appropriate for all older people exercise may improve mood in those undertaking it. (Blake et al 2009) Systematic Literature Search A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the CINAHL and PubMed databases and the search terms depression physical exercise and old* were used. CINAHL was found to be particularly useful as it possible to specify the age group required in the literature search. For the purposes of this search age 65+ was selected. PubMed is the public access version of Medline, a comprehensive database which indexes thousands of journals in the medical sciences field. (TVU 2010a). The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature Indexes virtually all English language journals from 1983 onwards. This database covers midwifery, nursing and related disciplines (TVU 2010b). Initially the searches indicated a vast array of literature but by applying a systematic review this was reduced. By using a logical search strategy with Boolean techniques the number of documents was limited to thirty. These were then reviewed and five articles were then selected which addressed the ques tion of exercise as a form of treatment for older people diagnosed with depression. The search parameters were limited to studies written in the English language, the age and the subjects, and both sexes were to be included. Harvard (2007) suggests that by applying parameters such as these the most up to date and relevant literature can be sourced. A full record of this search history is attached in appendix 1 and 2. A summary of the findings in the five pieces of research selected is detailed in the table overleaf. This table follows a structure recommended by Timmins McCabe (2005). Author and Year Journal Type of Study Purpose Sample Design Data Collection Key Findings Blake et al 2009 Clinical Rehabilitation Qualitative To assess efficacy of physical exercise in 11 trials totalling 641 participants Varied Varied 1 Exercise not relevant 2009; 23: 873-887 systematic treating depression in older adults to all in group review 2 May improve mood 3 further research needed to establish medium to long term effects and cost effectiveness Mather et al 2002 British Journal of Quantitative To determine whether exercise is effective 86 participants split into RCT clinical 1 Modest improvement Psychiatry (2002) as an addition to anti depressants in reducing two groups interview in symptoms after 10 180:411-415 depressive symptoms in older adults weeks 2 older people should be encouraged to attend exercise classes Brenes et al 2007 Aging Mental Health Quantitative To test feasibility and efficacy of exercise and 37 participants, 32 completed RCT structured 1 Both exercise Jan 2007;11(1):61-68 anti depressants compared with usual the study clinical interview and medication were treatments for older adults with observed shown to be statistically minor depression self reporting more effective than current treatment 2 Exercise also aided physical functioning Kerse et al 2010 Annals of Family Quantitative To assess effectiveness of home based 193 participants, 187 completed RCT structured 1 exercise and social Medicine 8:214-223 (2010) physical exercise plan in treating older the study clinical interview visits showed similar adults with depressive symptoms compared effects in improving to social visits mood an quality of life 2 More research is required Blumenthal et al Archives of Internal Quantitative to assess effectiveness of exercise 156 participants RCT structured 1 after 16 weeks 1999 Medicine 159(19) (1999) compared to antidepressants for treatment clinical interview exercise equally effective of major depression in older as anti depressantsCritical Appraisal The following appraisal was structured by using an approved and recognised framework for completing such tasks. (Polit et al. 2001) The article selected for critical appraisal is Effects of exercise on depressive symptoms in older adults with poorly responsive depressive disorder. (Mather et al. 2002). A copy of the article is attached as appendix 2. The aim of the study was to determine whether exercise is effective as an adjunct to antidepressant therapy in reducing depressive symptoms in older people. This was clearly defined. In the introduction the authors stated that it is widely held that exercise is useful in depression, but that there were few studies on the potential effects that exercise may have as an addition to antidepressant therapies for older adults. The key finding of this study was that at ten weeks older people with poorly responsive depressive disorder showed a modest improvement in depressive symptoms and should therefore be encouraged to attend group exercise activities. The study conducted was a randomised controlled trial. Randomised controlled trials are the most rigorous way of determining whether a relation exists between treatment and outcome and for assessing the cost effectiveness of a treatment. (Sibbald Rowland 1998). Patients were randomly selected to attend either exercise classes or health education talks for ten weeks. Assessments were blind and were conducted at baseline, ten and thirty four weeks. The primary outcome was measured with the 17 item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). HRSD is a multiple choice questionnaire used by clinicians to measure the severity of major depression in patients. (Hamilton 1960). The nature of both interventions is clearly described by the authors. All participants were outpatients recruited from primary care, psychiatric services and direct advertisement. 1885 patients were screened with a view to recruitment, and 86 were selected at random for the study. To be included patients were require d to have symptoms of depression, and to be older than fifty three years of age. In addition patients had to have been receiving antidepressant therapy for at least six weeks, without evidence of a sustained improvement in their condition. Patients were excluded if there was: alcohol or substance misuse, structured psychotherapy in place, or were already taking regular exercise. Patients with specific medical conditions preventing physical exercise were also excluded. Both groups were informed of the nature of the trial, and all patients gave written informed consent. The study was approved by a medical research ethics committee. There were two groups with 43 patients in each and were comparable in terms of age range and symptom presentation. There was however a heavy preponderance of women in the exercise group. The authors suggest that this may have introduced a bias into the results, and suggest a control group could be introduced in the future without either intervention. The outcomes for both groups were measured in the same way by the proportion of participants achieving a greater than thirty percent reduction in HRSD score from baseline. The results are shown in a statistical format and are recorded in a table. There are twenty four references in the report which support the evidence presented by the authors. The implications for the health service are that structured group exercise sessions can help to make a modest improvement in patients who are not responding to pharmacological treatment and that older people with depressive disorders should be encouraged to attend group exercise activities. It should be noted that one of the authors of the research is co-director of a company providing exercise classes for older people and whose profits support research into aging. Review of Literature This review of literature will show how the five main studies and all available literature assist in answering the set question. The first part of this review will concentrate on the five main studies and the second part will contain evidence from a wide range of sources and relate this combined information to government policy and guidelines. There will also be evidence of how all the information relates back to practice. It is well acknowledged that depression is widespread (Osborn et al 2003) and is the most prevalent mental health problem for older people (Age Concern 2007) The condition affects one in five people over 65 and rises to two in five in those over 85 (Mental Health Foundation 2008). The use of exercise to combat depression is well supported due to its effects on enhancing mood, improving cognitive function and reducing anxiety; it is also less expensive than medication (Louch 2008). A literature review was conducted to examine whether exercise could be an effective form of treatment for older adults with depressive symptoms. Article 1 (Blake, Mo, Malik and Thomas 2008) conducted a systematic review of eleven randomized control trials in order to establish whether physical activity interventions were successful in alleviating depressive symptoms in older people. Trials were included in the review when more than 80% of the participants were greater than sixty years old. In nine of the eleven studies short term positive outcomes were found, although the mode, intensity and duration of the exercise program differed across the studies. The medium to long term effects of exercise as an intervention were less clear. This outcome is backed up by Mead et al (2008) who concluded that exercise seems to improve depressive symptoms in people with a diagnosis of depression, but the effects are moderate and not statistically significant. However a randomized controlled trial conducted by Blumenthal et al (1999) (Article 2) had reached different conclusions. One hundred and fifty six men and women aged over fifty were split into groups randomly to a program of aerobic exercise, antidepressants (sertraline hydrochloride) or combined exercise and medication. After sixteen weeks of treatment the patients did not differ significantly statistically either on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression or Beck Depression Inventory scores. The study concluded that antidepressant medication had the most rapid effect, but after sixteen weeks exercise was equally effective in reducing symptoms of major depressive disorder. Article 3 (Brenes et al 1999) conducted a pilot study designed as a randomized clinical trial to test the feasibility and efficacy of an exercise program and antidepressant treatment compared with usual care in improving emotional and physical functioning in older adults with minor depression. A total of thirty seven participants aged over sixty five were randomized to treatment: fourteen to exercise, eleven to sertraline and twelve to usual care. Patients who received either exercise or sertraline treatments demonstrated improvement both in clinician led and self reported measures of depressive symptoms. Those participants who received the usual package care experienced small or no improvement in mental state. There are some limitations to this study however. The sample size was small and thus the statistical power was weak. The diagnosis of minor depression was based on self diagnosis rather than clinical interview. It was also not stated in the report what the usual care was. Ther e were however significant trends to suggest that sertraline and exercise could be used as treatments for mild depression in older adults, and that a more in depth study should be undertaken. Article 4 (Kerse et al 2010) published a study comparing the effects of a home based exercise program with regular social contact in improving function, quality of life and mood in older people with depressive symptoms. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in which one hundred and ninety three people aged over seventy five with depressive symptoms received either an individualized physical activity program or social visits delivered over six months. The social visits were of the same time span as the exercise program. Outcome measures were obtained at three, six and twelve months. Both physical and mental well being was measured using a variety of techniques including a short function test, and the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale (Nouri Lincoln 1987). It was concluded that a structured activity program improved mood and quality of life for older people with depressive symptoms as much as the effect of social visits. There was however no control group bein g measured that was receiving usual care. Article 5 (Mather et al 2002) set out to determine whether exercise is effective as an adjunct to antidepressant therapy in reducing depressive symptoms in older people. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in which eighty six participants aged between fifty three and ninety one already receiving anti depressant therapy were given either exercise classes or health education talks over a ten week period. Assessments were made blind at baseline, ten and thirty four weeks using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression as the primary outcome. At ten weeks a significantly higher proportion of the exercise group (55% compared with 33%) experienced a greater than 30% decline in depression. In an article in The British Journal of Psychiatry in 2002, Jagadheesan et al critiqued this study and stated that it could have been more meaningful if a control group had been added which received no additional treatment other than continuing antidepressants. (Jagadheesan et al 2002). The majority of research above suggests that physical exercise reduces depression and depressive symptoms in the short term in older adults, but additional well controlled studies are required to determine the long term efficacy. A systematic review carried out by Sjosten Kivela supports these findings (Sjosten Kivela 2002). Direct comparisons between studies is difficult as they differ greatly in characteristics, nature of control comparison group, age of the participants, type and intensity of exercise and outcome measures used to follow up. National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines are set out to assist clinicians and patients in making decisions about appropriate treatment for specific conditions. The guidelines for depression suggest that for particularly for patients with mild or moderate depressive disorders, structured and supervised exercise can be an effective intervention that has a clinically significant impact on depressive symptoms. There is also evidence to suggest that individuals with low mood may also benefit from structured and supervised exercise. (NICE 2005). Conclusion Physical exercise is clinically beneficial in the short term for treatment of depressive symptoms in older people. Exercise, although not appropriate for all older persons with depression, may improve mood in this group. Evidence of the cost effectiveness of providing exercise interventions would be beneficial in helping decision making regarding service use and delivery. More well designed research studies are needed to examine the medium and long term benefits of exercise as a treatment for depressive symptoms in older adults, and to examine the types and duration of interventions that have the most positive effect. Word Count 3008 References Age Concern (2007) Mental Health Services Letting Down Older People. [On Line] Available at [Accessed 12 May 2010] London: Age Concern. Alexopoulos, G.S., Buckwalter, K., Olin, J., Martinez, R., Wainscott, C., Krishnan, K.R. (2002) Comorbidity of late-life depression: an opportunity for research in mechanisms and treatment. Biol Psychiatry 2002; 52:543-58. Blake, H., Mo, P., Malik, S., Thomas, S. (2009) How Effective are Physical Activity Interventions for Alleviating Depressive Symptoms in Older People? A Systematic Review Clinical Rehabilitation 2009; 23: 873-887 Blazer, D.G. (2003) Depression in late life: review and commentary. J Gerontol Med Sci 2003; 56A: 249-65. Blumenthal, J.A., Babyak, M.A., Moore, K.A., Craighead, E., Herman, S., Khatri, P., Waugh, R., Napolitano, M.A., Forman, L.M., Appelbaum, M., Doraiswamy, P.M., Krishnan, K.R., (1999) Effects of Exercise Training on Older patients with Major Depression Archives Of Internal Medicine Vol. 159 No.19, October 25, 1999 Brenes, G.A., Williamson, J.D., Messier, S.P., Rejeski, W.J., Pahor, M., Ip, E., Penninx, J.H. (2007) Treatment of Minor Depression in Older Adults: A Pilot Study Comparing Sertraline and Exercise Aging Mental Health, January 2007; 11(1): 61-68 Craig, J.V. (2002). How to ask the right question. In J.V. Craig R.L. Smyth (Eds.), Evidence-based practice manual for nurses (pp. 21-44). Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone. Depression Today (2010) DSM IV [Online] Available at [Accessed 8 May 2010] Hamilton, M (1960) A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 23: 56-62 Harvard, L. (2007) How to conduct an effective and valid literature search. Nursing Times 103, (45), 32-33 Jagadheesan, K., Chakraborty, S., Sinha, V.K., Nizamie, S.H. (2002) Effects of Exercise on Depression in Old Age The British Journal of Psychiatry (2002) 181: 532 Kerse, N., Hayman, K.J., Moyes, S.A., Peri, K., Robinson, E., Dowell, A., Kolt, G.S., Elley, C.R., Hatcher, S., Kiata, E., Wiles, J., Keeling, S., Parsons, J., Arroll B., (2010) Home-Based Activity Program for Older People With Depressive Symptoms: DeLLITE A Randomized Controlled Trial Annals of Family Medicine 8:214-223 (2010) Louch, P. (2008) Depression in Primary Care [On Line] Available at [Accessed 14 May 2010] Mather, A.S., Rodriguez, C., McMurdo, M.E.T. (2002) Effects of Exercise on Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults with Poorly Responsive Depressive Disorder The British Journal of Psychiatry (2002) 180: 411-415 McKenna, H., Cutliffe, J., McKenna, P., (1999) Evidence-based practice: demolishing some myths. Nursing Standard. 14, 16, 39-42. Date of acceptance: November 15 1999. McMaster Clinical Epidemiology Group (1997) Evidence Based Practice Resources [On Line] Available at [Accessed 20 May 2010] Mead, G.E., Morley, W., Campbell, P., Greig, C.A., McMurdo, M., Lawlor, D.A. (2008) Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008. Issue 4. Art. No. CD004366.   Melnyk, B. M., Fineout-Overholt, E. (2005). Evidence-based practice in nursing healthcare: A guide to best practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Mental Health Foundation (2007) Depression and Suicide in Later Life [On Line] Available at [Accessed 12 May 2010] London: Mental Health Foundation National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2005) Depression: Management of depression in primary and secondary care National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2007) Developing Clinical Questions [Online] Available at: [Accessed 8 May 2010] NHS Choices (2010) Treating Depression [On Line] Available at [Accessed 16 May 2010] Nouri, F.M. Lincoln, N.B. (1987) An Extended Activities of Daily Living Index for stroke patients. Clinical Rehabilitation 1987; 1:301-5. Osborn, P.J., Fletcher, A.E., Smeeth, L., Stirling, S., Bulpitt, C., Nunes, M., Breeze, E., Edmond, S.W.Ng., Jones, D., Tulloch, A. (2003) Performance of a single screening question for depression in a representative sample of 13,670 people aged 75 and over in the UK: Results from the MRC trial of assessment and management of older people in the community. Family Practice; 20: 6, 682-684 Palsson, S., Ostling, S., Skoog, I. (2001) The incidence of first onset depression in a population followed from the age of 70 to 85.Psychol Med 2001; 31: 1159-68. Polit, D.F., Beck, C.T., and Hungler, B.P. (2001) Essentials of nursing research methods, appraisal and utilisation. (5th Ed.) Philadelphia; Lippincott. Sibbald, B. Roland, M. (1998) Understanding controlled trials: Why are randomised controlled trials important? BMJ 1998; 316:201 (17  January) Sjosten, N., Kivela, S.L., (2006) The effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms among the aged: a systematic review. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 May; 21(5):410-8 Teresi, J., Abrams, R., Holmes, D., Ramirez, M., Eimicke, J. (2001) Prevalence of depression and depression recognition in nursing homes. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2001; 36: 613-29. Thames Valley University (2010a) Library Services Databases A-Z [Online] Available at: [Accessed 2nd May 2010] Thames Valley University (2010b) Library Services Databases A-Z [Online] Available at: [Accessed 2nd May 2010] Timmins, F. McCabe, C. (2005) How to conduct an effective literature search Nursing Standard November 23: vol 20 no 11 Appendix 1 Copies of Search Strategies

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Essay --

The Great Depression was an absolute economic disaster that occurred after the big stock market crash of 1929. This crashed occurred mainly because of all the excitement caused by the Roaring Twenties. Popular items like automobiles and household appliances ended up being produced in much greater quantities than were being sold. The current president of the United States, Herbert Hoover, was not succeeding at all in putting an end to The Great Depression. All Americans were desperate to find someone who would aid them in climbing out the great sink hole that was the stability of the United States. Thankfully, for them, Mr. Hoover’s successor will be the man to do the trick of bringing America out of that hole. The First and Second New Deals were responses to the worst economic tragedy in American history. Without these deals, America’s economy would have been disastrous for much longer and could have easily had a role on our economic stability today. After taking oath of office on March 4, 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt knew that he was going to have a lot on his presidential plate. At this point in time, the economy was almost to the point of completely collapsing. Roosevelt grew up in a rich family and was never one that ever had to work just to make ends meet. He was quite intelligent, graduating from Harvard. He is known for having a charming personality and he knew how to persuade anyone to get what he wanted done accomplished. After graduating from Harvard, he started a career in banking and then went on to become the governor of New York in 1928. So, he was more than qualified for the presidency and many had faith that he could play a big role in saving America’s economy. On March 5, 1933, one day after taking oath, Roos... ...f The Great Depression. Roosevelt and his administrations efforts simply put people back to work helped stabilize the economy and gave Americans hope. Some parts of the New Deals were successful, some were not so much so. All of these acts are also responsible for providing an infrastructure to the current economic system of America and it also provided smaller things like great roads, bridges and dams to greater acts like Social Security. Roosevelt’s reforms put an end to many disasters but on the other hand, he knew there were problems that he could not change so he left them be. His efforts were so well-known and praised that after he ran for election again in 1936, he beat the Republican Party by a landslide which showed that the Americans supported him and his great actions. He deserves most, if not all of the credit for the successes of the American economy.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Essay the Matrix Essay

Plato believed that the world as we see it, is not real but a more illusion, a copy of the real world to be more precise. Take for example if you look at rose or at a woman and you think they are both beautiful, that’s manifesting herself in those object, so the idea in this case pure beauty. So according to plato we are not really living in the real world, when we look at a rose or at a woman we are only seeing at a copy of real beauty. So when plato wrote about the cave, he said that man is chained in such a manner that they face only the shadows of anything that is passing by outside the cave. Because the man has only seen these shadows, he will take it as the real things. So if the man sees the shadow of a tree, because that’s the only thing he has seen he will think it’s a real tree. The only way to become unchained Plato thought, was to begin to see the real nature of things through the mind’s eye. But Plato belived that no one could be taught, they had to see reality for themselves, at most they could only be directed by people who had already been there. Plato continues that when someone sees the real world for the first time, it will be to bright for the person and will be confused, but only after spending some time his mind like the eyes will adjust to the light. In the movie this is more or less what happens to Neo, he is trapped in an illusion, he thinks it’s real because that’s the only thing he has seen. He cannot be told what the matrix is he has to see it for himself, when he first sees it he cannot believe it, but eventually accepts it, and so forth. Both Plato’s Cave and the Matrix play with the question are we awake? Both contend that humanity is asleep. Both Plato and the Matrix contend that given everyday world is illusionary. Plato because for him the real world are the form beyond the senses and everyday experience are just shadows on the cave wall. The Matrix presents an substratum a real world open rationing underground. And The prisoner who lives the cave, comes into the sun and their eyes are blinded by the light. The same can be seen when neo first came out of the matrix and said my eyes. I can’t see. Another of the similitaries is that in the Cave is some Light, the fire which cast the shadows of the puppets on the walls. This Light can be seen as an small aspect of the sun, small aspect of the Truth. It can be said, that there is Truth beyond the illusion, as its source is the Light. The same in the Matrix, the source of the Matrix is in the real world, only difference is that people are the Light of the matrix since they created it. And was told that’s because you have never used them before. Another similitaries is that in the Cave the prisoners never used their eyes truly, they were always in the darkness where they could not see behind themselves to see what was the source of the shadows, in fact their eyes were only adjusted/conditioned to the dimness of the Cave to the degree that when one of the prisoners left the cave and saw the outside their eyes were blinded, having never seen it before, or in the matrix having never used their eyes before. The other diference are that Matrix is more political than mystical as in Plato vision. The philosophical view of the nature of reality as seen in the matrix and the allegory of the cave are the Artificial Intelligence machines are the puppeteers, tricking the humans into believing the Matrix is actual reality. The humans that are imprisoned in the Matrix are like the prisoners in the cave. Neo is the prisoner that is freed from the cave into the true reality of the world. The Matrix is the cave, the real world is existence outside the cave. If i compare these views Descartes poses the question of how he can know with certainty that the world he experiences is not an illusion being forced upon him by an evil demon. He reasons since he believes in what he sees and feels while dreaming, he cannot trust his senses to tell him that he is not still dreaming. His senses cannot provide him with proof that the world even exists. Descartes’ evil demon is vividly realized in the Matrix films as the artificial intelligence that forces a virtual reality on humans. Just as Descartes realized that the sensations in his dreams were vivid enough to convince him the dreams were real, the humans who are plugged into the Matrix have no idea that their sensations are false, created artificially instead of arising from actual experiences. Until Neo is yanked from the Matrix, he, too, has no idea that his life is a virtual reality. Like Descartes, Neo eventually knows to take nothing at face value, and to question the existence of even those things, such as chairs, that seem most real. I think that the scenario that is shown in The matrix Could’t happen. because there cant be transported from one world to another through the phone, and cant be alive in two equal bodies in two places are just illucions that in real life can not pass never.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Facing poverty with a Rich girls habits Essays

Facing poverty with a Rich girls habits Essays Facing poverty with a Rich girls habits Paper Facing poverty with a Rich girls habits Paper Suck Kim, the writer of Facing Poverty with a Rich Girls Habits, attempts to narrate the struggles of switching from a lavish upbringing to a poverty stricken lifestyle. She tells the story of how her family was forced to move to the slums of Queens from South Korea after her fathers businesses plummeted financially. She was forced to learn many skills that would help her survive In this foreign place she had just entered. Things like learning to relate to other people her age, going to the Laundromat, and riding public transportation were all things she had to get used to. Also, she describes how school life was so different from back home. Kids were Infinitely divided by social class and sometimes even ethnicity. She states how teachers werent as respected In America as they were In South Korea. She felt Like the only place where she could truly express herself were her E. S. L classes. Small remarks of racism from her classmates such as FOB (fresh off the boat) TLD seem to nerve her probably because she didnt know what these words meant at the time. Another problem was learning to do tasks on her own. Things Like doing homework without help from someone and cleaning without maids were not things she was accustomed to. She battled an inner conflict with race. When she came to America not only did she become Asian, but also a minority. Since everyone in South Korea was the same skin tone or race it wasnt very easy to discriminate. However in the Unites States, its usual for one person or even a few people to be singled out.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019


HARLEY REVS UP ITS ENGINES essays Teerlink knew that the best way to improve quality and reliability and lower production costs was to create an environment where everyone took responsibility for the companys present and future. Of course, such an approach would not come naturally to Harley. The previous crisis had been managed with an unmistakable topdown approach, as is often the case with turnarounds. But times had changed. Employees could no longer be privates, taking orders and operating within strict limits. So Teerlink flattened the corporate hierarchy and established teams of cross-functional leaders to work collaboratively and provide senior leadership with direction. This is the structure under which Harley currently operates. At the heart of the organizational structure are three cross-functional teams called Circles-the Create Demand Circle, the Produce Product Circle, and the Provide Support Circle. Each Circle includes design engineers, purchasing professionals, manufacturing personnel, marketing personnel, and others. The cross-functional teams are responsible for every motorcycle produced by Harley-from product conception to final design. Within each team, the leadership role moves from person to person, depending on the issue being addressed. Recognizing that suppliers input is crucial to Harleys new product development, all cross-functional teams include key suppliers who work elbow-to-elbow with Harley personnel. Suppliers are the experts. They have expertise I not only what theyre developing today but also whats going on in their industry, says one Harley purchasing director. The more input we have up front, the better our products will be. Cross-functional teamwork has indeed paid off for Harley. With record profits and a good chance of soon reaching their annual production goal of 200,000 bikes, the companys 6,000-plus employees hav ...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Culture and Communication Research Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Culture and Communication Research Paper - Essay Example Christianity is one of many religions which thrive in that country. The people are spiritually minded. Hinduism is the religion of the majority with 82% of Indians being Hindus. 12.1% of Indians are Muslims. Those officially following Christianity form a meager 2.3% (Census of India, 2001). For a follower of Jesus (which is what we mean from now on as 'Christian') it is a command and an obligation to share the gospel with others who do not know. According to Mark chapter 16 and verse 15, Jesus has commanded us to 'go into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature'. Yet in a country like India which is deeply entrenched in spirituality there are tremendous challenges to the credibility of the gospel message. We will look at the communication of this message primarily among the Hindus in India The popular perception in India is that Christianity was brought into the country by foreign missionaries who came along with the British East India Company in the early 1700s. The British eventually captured and ruled the country till the mid 1900s. As Wikipedia the online encyclopedia states about that time: "Imbued with an ethnocentric sense of superiority, often known as the White Man's Burden, British intellectuals, including Christian missionaries, sought to bring Western intellectual and technological innovations to Indians, ignoring the fact that the Indian Christian tradition went back to the very beginnings of first century Christian thought" (Wikipedia contributors) Hence although untrue, there is a sense that Christianity is a foreign religion. The fact that the West is predominantly Christian contributes to this perception. Money from the West that has traditionally come in for evangelistic and missionary campaigns also fuels the perception that the financial base of Christianity in India is abroad. As Astrid Lobo Gajiwala an Indian Christian activist writes, ".They just don't see Christians as Indians; they see us as an alien 'other', minions of a white, Christian world that is synonymous with spiritual and racial chauvinism (1998)." Language and attire incompatibility. It cannot be denied that western influence has permanently crept into Indian Christianity. Christian worship is conducted in many languages but English is predominant among them. The exceptions to this are the Tamil, Malayalam and Latin languages which may be more popular in the respective states (Latin is used in Orthodox churches). English has never been in the scheme of things for Hindu worship or religious literature until recently. Christian communities especially Roman Catholics and Goans have predominantly English names and western attire. The communication at home among these communities is predominantly in English. Songs and music Music used for Christian worship has its influence in the West. The songs sung in church are either hymns composed by English or American songwriters in English or contemporary songs again composed in the West in English. Churches depicted in Hindi movies usually have a church organ playing in the background. Local worship songs have begun to gain in popularity but this is a recent though

Friday, November 1, 2019

Consumer Perception Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Consumer Perception - Essay Example Advancement and changes have become a part of our lives and world is getting advance day by day as per needs. There have been times when inventions have astonished us as many impossible things have become reality as any dream has become truth. Truth has always seemed as stranger than fiction and science has proved this fact (02whole). Many companies and product ranges have emerged to prove this fact and have benefited our lives. There are certain goods and products which have confronted our perceptions as they seemed unachievable or impossible to create but since technological advancement has taken place, all things have become possible. One such object in my mind is a personal robot that can not only do all the work being fed in its memory but can also predict and pursue human mind. Human perceives that computers and automated devices can only perform tasks which are already fed in the memory of the device but this robot will actually challenge the perception of human mind. I feel it will be unique in a sense that its sensor would have the capability of detecting the prospective future. There are many products which has made lives easier and quicker but the unique feature of this product is to function in a way that future tasks are also expected through the usage of sensors (flicker man made things). People hav e a mind set of getting attracted to things which are designed very well but features of this product will overwhelm the perceptions of all. Such products are made to provide a stage ahead of what people are already using. It is one of those consumer products which is actually conceptualized keeping in mind the mind set and trend adopted by the people since past few years. Consumer products have been evolving from stage to stage and have reached a top level of providing satisfaction to all. This is possible due to survey and research of consumer demands and their likings. Research helps manufacturers and companies to predict what sort of ease and benefit a customer is looking towards from a particular product. However, consumers have always looked for better options for themselves based on satisfaction level and ease. It is very important for a manufacturer to know what features or functions are expected out of its product as the whole activity of creating any product is to provide it with full satisfaction to its potential buyers. Manufacturers need to be cautious as they need to make analysis of what is required by the customer, as any wrong step or decision can make their work gone to rust. One of the important reasons in this regard is that people around the world are of different from each other. Their likings and disliking, their prospect towards things, their choices etc are all different as everybody belongs to different ethnic backgrounds and most of all have different exposures. It is very important to first make segments of the potential market and then to introduce any product in a based on that segmentation. Segmentation helps in dividing the markets based on the needs of cust omers which help the manufacturers to make available those products and goods which are actually required by them. It is also very important fo

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Article Review 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Article Review 2 - Essay Example With the end in view of a win-win situation, the then-President Clinton promised that the â€Å"agreement will open China’s market to us.† However, within the span of 6 years, there have been rampant findings that China’s agricultural exports, specially that of veterinary feeds have been adulterated with at least 3 chemicals detrimental and derogatory to the Americans. Chemicals posing health hazards are the likes of melamine, cyanuric acid, diethylene glycol, have been separately found in the Chinese agricultural produce exported to the U.S., whose remedial actions are more costly than the short and long-run cost-benefit analysis. The PNTR with China as part of the World Trade Organization (WTO) cum â€Å"globalization has turned out to be a cheat.† The trade relations with China is too costly for the Americans which poses threat to health, life, and limbs of the â€Å"Beautiful American† ecology. While the â€Å"Americans can’t count the cost merely in dollars and in bushels,† China is not at par with the American â€Å"health, sanitary or safety standards.† The actual U.S. findings on product adulteration by Chinese traders, despite the latter’s haggling and denial, are merely ignored by globalists and free-traders for years—simply because of profit-motive. The reviewer agrees with the Author, whose heart and soul is merely to protect and conserve American legacy against the ill-effects of development and globalization. Profit-motive and human greed is the root-cause of this trade war and disequilibrium. When deceit and fraud are prevalent, the goods and services in the commerce of men are felt immediately in the short and in the long while. Progress and development has its price, but we can procure conservatively by not hurrying too much, and by taking time to study more seriously before opening the â€Å"pandora’s box5† to our detriment. The elders have spoken, why don’t we listen and take pains in

Monday, October 28, 2019

Our Duties to the Environment Essay Example for Free

Our Duties to the Environment Essay Technology, unfortunately, has two-faces; while it can aid the human race in easing tasks, curing countless diseases, and even lengthening life spans, it can also destroy the earth and its inhabitants. There is much good to be said about the development of the human race when it comes to technology, but it cannot be denied that insofar as Mother Earth is concerned, there were countless of damages inflicted through the process of development. There is a need to evaluate the costs and problems that will be met whenever new developments arise, as well as find means to finally minimize these problems. In order to come up with the information on how such problems may be minimized, there needs to be an analysis of the literature regarding such issues (Pojman and Vaughn 895). Despite the fact that various literature has been written about the problem, the human race cannot escape the fact that they might have not done enough to address such issues. Our Duties to the Environment shows that in order for such problems to be solved, there is a need for humans to acknowledge the fact that technology and development can cause as much harm as good to everyone. Work Cited Pojman, Louis, and Lewis Vaughn. â€Å"Our Duties to the Environment. † The Moral Life: An Introductory Reader in Ethics and Literature. , Louis Pojman and Lewis Vaughn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 893-895. Print.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

othello :: essays research papers

The play, Othello was written by William Shakespeare in the later years of his career. Giraldi Cinthios, Tale of a Moor, based Othello on a story that was a mellow Drama, about a moor and his doubts about his wife’s fidelity. In Shakespeare’s play the Moor (Othello) convinced by his jealous aid (Iago) that his wife (Desdemona) is not Being faithful. Iago’s jealousy is motivated by his anger when he learns that Cassio of Florentine has been appointed Governor of Cyprus. He felt that he deserved this promotion and vowed to seek revenge against Othello. Othello being a Moor commanding the armies of Venice is a celebrated general and heroic figure whose â€Å"free and open nature â€Å" will enable Iago to twist his love for his wife, Desdemona into a powerful jealousy. Iago is Othello’s ensign, and Shakespeare’s greatest villain. His public face of honesty and bravery conceals a satanic delight in manipulation and destruction. . The crucial moment in the play is the scene where Iago deceives Othello and induces him to fall. He does this by expanding the tactics used in prior scenes. Iago plants the seed of doubt in the Moor’s mind when he says, â€Å"Ha! I like that not â€Å" (III, iii) as they came upon Cassio and Desdemona talking. He then retreats into a guise as â€Å"honest Iago† as he did in the brawl (II, ii). When he was the reluctant truth teller who must have unpleasant news dragged from him by a determined Othello. The honesty by him being reluctant to speak is reinforced by the moralizing tone he takes with his commander. Iago actually lectures Othello about his jealousy â€Å"the green-eyed monster† and insisting that he’ll not speak slander â€Å"he that filches from me my good name / Robs of that which not enriched him / And makes me poor indeed† (III, iii). At the same time he is playing upon Othello’s insecurities by lecturing him on how Venetian women are deceitful and treacherous by nature. The seizure of the handkerchief is a great achievement for Iago in his quest to destroy Othello and was aided by his wife, who apparently has no scruples about betraying her mistress in small matters. Shakespeare will eventually transform Emilia into a voice of moral outrage, and by the final scene the audience will applaud her role in Iago’s destruction, but for now she is Iago’s accomplice.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Curry Powder Indusrty

INDUSTRY PROFILE India is a land of spices where many varieties are grown in the different regions of the country. The people of the country are fond of spicy food so the spices are the most important ingredient in any Indian dish. The nation is not just the big producer and consumer of spices but also a major player in international market, exporting the surplus and importing the deficit. Spices play an important role in enhancing the flavor and taste of the processed foods. They are also used in the medicines because of their carminative, simulative and digestive properties. India produces almost all the known spices and is the largest exporter of this commodity. Ground spices are extensively used in all types of curried dishes in India and abroad. Although spices are traded chiefly in an unprocessed form, a small yet significant quantity enters international trade as spice powders. Curry powder is the foremost of those blends or mixes and sometimes consists of 20 or more spices designed to add the characteristic flavor of an Indian curry, which is appreciated all over the world. Apart from the overseas market, processed curry powder is becoming popular in the domestic market also. Hence the demand for unadulterated spices and curry powder in attractive handy packaging is fast emerging. FOOD INDUSTRY IN INDIA In India, agricultural and dairy sector have achieved remarkable successes over the last three and half decades. Besides being one of the world’s largest producers of food grains. India ranks second in the world in the production of fruits and vegetables and first in milk production providing much needed foods security to the nation. India is one of the world’s major food producers but accounts for less than 1. 5%of international food trade. The value of the Indian food industry has increased from 3. 09 trillion in 1993-94 to Rs. 3. 99 trillion in 2000-01. The segment with largest growth potential have been identified as dairy, fruits and vegetables and poultry. Food marketing is a highly regulated industry. Regulation in food marketing attempted regulates competition and monopolistic condition facilitates trade, protect consumers and directly influence food price and faster economic and social progress. India produces variety of spice products. No country in the world produces as much kind of spices products as India producing. The Indian spices and curry powder market plays an important role in the daily life of Indians. Now, curry powder industries have a prominent role in food product industry in India INDIAN SPICES India is the largest producers of spices in the world as the weather is apparently suitable for the cultivation of spices. Spices are cultivating in 28 states and 7 territorial provinces in India. As of now, India is producing around 2. 5 million tones of various spices valued approximately 3 billion US$ and holding a premier position in the world. Moreover India is the major exporters of spices in the world under the auspicious of India government owned â€Å"Spices board of India†, which is the apex body for the export promotion of spices in India. This was established in 1987. The board plays a far reaching and influential role as a development, regulatory and promotional agency for Indian spices. In early days Indian people were stored the various kinds of spices such as chilly, turmeric, coriander and so on, for preparing the various dishes and gravies. These spices were separately and blending depends on the nature of dishes. Spices used to flavor with the help of indigenous tools at home by women, as that was the custom during that period. In course of time situations are changed, people are forced to use electronic devices in order to reduce their domestic job. In turns, they used readymade curry powders at their home. Gradually they have fallen in to a habit of using instant curry powders from the open market. Taken stock of this situations several firms were came forward to launch curry powder industries. That is why curry powder industries were emerging immensely all over the country. As of now curry powder industries have a prominent role in Food industry in India. CURRY POWDER The name Curry powder today is synonymous with the Indian food. The word curry is believed to be delivered from the South Indian Tamil World ‘Karhi’. During the British Raj in India, â€Å"curry† evolved as the world described Indian food cooked in this spices sauce. Over the years, the foreigners, especially British who leaved or visited India . Slowly started to introduce the curry to outside the world. The good commercial curry powder was hard to find during the early days. People had to make curry powder from scratch if they wanted quality. However, now many good curry powders are easily found in India as well as western super markets. Curry powder is blend or mixture of the different spices, which defers according to geographic regions or personal preference. CURRY POWDER INDUSTRY In the scenario, economy exhibits high line of consumerism. The curry powder industry has witnessed the entry of many companies in the Indian market by pumping huge amount of capital in order to capture the market share. However many domestic companies have emerged with various attraction products with a view to overcome the country wide companies and capturing a large number of customers. On our observation most of the companies are performing satisfactorily for a particular brand to move fast in the market it has to meet the 4 A’s. That is the market customers should be aware of it, should be an acceptable, available and affordable. Obviously, the manufactures should understand the need and wants of the customer and provides total satisfaction in order to succeed in the business world. Curry powder is a well known name among the Indian people. It is the combination of finely powdered spices. For each dish there are different curry powder spices. For each dish there are different curry powders but the ingredients are more or less the same. Now a day’s most of the housewives are using this ready-made curry powder and so the quantity required is increasing day by day. So this is an industry by which a new entrepreneur can start without second though. But the manufacturers should give attention for capturing the market. Now days not only the urban people but villages also have a craze for these ready-made curry powders. There is a good market for curry powder in India and abroad. The major players in the curry powder in India are; Eastern, Melam, Mangala, Saras, etc. As Kerala’s largest producer of condiments, â€Å"Eastern Condiments (P) Ltd† has helped to keep the famous spice route alive. With an experience of over 30 years in producing spices, they have provided their consumers with consistently high quality powders and blends â€Å"Melam† the word means a multiple of musical instruments in harmony creating a fast of exotic and exquisite music. M. V. J. Foods (India) (P) Ltd. Cochin brings out a variety curry powder and spice powder under the brand name Melam. The melam range is vast and includes a great variety of perception. â€Å"devon, THE SPICE of life† deven foods gives a wide range of aromatic spice powders and curry powders for all culinary needs. They use only best quality spices and process them in appropriate condition. â€Å"Sara spice† is the condiment producing unit of the Anna group. Company is involved in the production and exports of Indian spices. Like curry powder, Masala powder, Indian whole spices since the past two decades. CURRY POWDER MARKET Although Indian spices have been in the world market for several centuries, the curry powder business, particularly curry masala (blender, spices) has not been exploited by the Indian entrepreneurs to a significant extent. Export of this product has not registered any significant growth producers in un organized sector have dominated the domestic market, for curry powder and curry masala . Obviously the curry powder growth industries brand promotion continues to be significant till recently. However, few manufacturers from the organized sector have been promoting branded products in Kerala market recently. Competition has turned to be aggressive with the stagnation in the international market. Producing of curry powder and curry masala are involving in marketing strategies to ensure significant market shares although in specific segment DOMESTIC MARKET The India market for curry powder is estimated at Rs. 500 Cr. This is account for 25% of world consumption of curry powders. The curry powder market is estimated to be around Rs. 150Cr, with approximate 35% of market in south India. The curry powder market in Kerala is estimated at Rs 70 Cr. The market can be categorized in to 3 groups. * The premium segment The medium segment * Un organized sector In the previous segment the major brands in the market are Everest, Melam Saras and MDH . the study done by various authorities revels that moast popular Brand in the premium segment is Everest with 30% market share . Melam had 50% market share, while other brads had a negligible share in the premium segment. However, the premium makes up only 30% of the total market of curry powder in Kerala. The medium segment consist 50% of total curry powder market, Easter is the market leader in the segment. The unorganized segment consists of 20% of the total curry powder market. INTERNATIONAL MARKET Exports of spices from India usually take place in bulk form. The export of value added products are few, as none competitive prices cannot survive in the International market. Curry powder is value added spice product. the world consumption of curry powder is estimated to be 20000 metric tons in 2004, 2005. Exports of curry powder from Indian keep fluctuating between 2500 to 3500 metric tons . An analysis of annual exports of curry powders from India reveals that the exports do not show much variation . in total value terms the figures have been increasing over the years . In Indian curry powder industries, there was a few curry powder industries were existed of the beginning of which the following firms were the main producers. * MDH * EVEREST In Kerala the following a few companies were existed in producing curry powders in early stages viz. * Techno curry powder * Ambika curry powder * Rani curry powder The following are the some of the manufacturers and exporters of curry powders in India. * Asha impex (P) Ltd * Alvel sales * Amas spices * Anand Exportes * Anil grover &co * Aries Exports * B. M entrprices * Brahmins food products * C. B. R masala

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Multinational Perspective Essay

Multinational corporations originated from the need for substantial capital and limited risks for large industrial or commercial consortiums for overseas trade. The modern concept of multinational corporations came into being during the 17th and 18th centuries and a good example of such a venture is the British East India Company in South Asia and the Dutch East India Company in South East Asia’s Indo-Chinese Peninsula. With the current communications and management technologies available, more companies are able to make the most out of international trade liberalization.  Ã‚   Today, multinational corporations are expanding themselves to increase their markets, increase brand presence and image and benefit from inexpensive raw materials and labor (Chang, 2003). Scenario for Multinational Corporations Currently, there is an estimated 40,000 multinational corporation’s world wide in and approximately 250,000 overseas collaborations running cross-continental operations. Most multinational corporations are from the United States, Western Europe, and Japan. By 1995, the top 200 multinational corporations alone had collective revenues reaching of $7.1 Trillion which is equivalent to 28.3 percent of the gross domestic product globally (Bernal, Kaukab, and Yu, 2005). The operations of multinational corporations are governed by the policies of The World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Bank. Though the traditional view of multinational corporations is that of big manufacturers, current trends and developments in technology have also given rise to â€Å"micro-multinationals†[1] as well business process outsourcing (BPO) ventures (Ewing, 2005). Among the countries being targeted for multination expansion, China and India are the current top favorites of multinational companies (McKinsey Global Institute [MGI], 2004). Globalization has allowed access to markets via technology and has reduced distribution, lower internal coordination costs.   It has also allowed for networking of specialized services and products in support of corporate functions through BPO’s whether within the companies internal operations or its external activities (Ewing, 2005). Entry to Developing Markets   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Though the scenario of multinational expansion has changed, the methods of entry remain traditional in most developing countries (Hoos, 2000; Tubbs and Schulz, 2006). Strategies to enter new markets for multinational corporations are by mergers or direct acquisition, sequential market entry and through joint ventures Mergers   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Merger or direct acquisition of existing companies is the forthright entry to a market. This is the strategy usually employed by large multinational corporations. It maximizes the economies of scale advantage to overcome barriers to entry (Ewing, 2005; Multinational Corporations, 2006). Considered as foreign direct investments (FDI), they are subject to not only commercial regulation but are also direct affected by fiscal and investment policies by the host country, and related international trade policies (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development [UNCTAD], 2005). Beginning in 2004, it has been identified as a critical in developing countries and studies have been commissioned to quantify their impact of the economies of developing countries (UNCTAD, 2004). The first ranked for FDI is India and was followed closely by China (Kearney, 2004). Though India has been able to outrank China and Mexico, China actually acquires more FDI significantly either country since 2002 (Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, 2005; MGI, 2004). Sequential Market Entry Sequential market entry involves foreign direct investment and getting hold of a sector if the market related to the parent’s companies core line of business, usually its key product or competency. It is different from a merger that it that the parent company does not bring in all of products, services or operations into a host country (Multinational Corporations, 2006). This method is the preferred by smaller companies and conservative business to begin their multinational operations (Kearney, 2004). Sony, in its initial expansion to the United States first limited its operations to manufacturing televisions but eventually expanded its operations to the production of magnetic tape and eventually to the production of audio in the 1970’s. Today, Sony’s operations in the United States include semiconductors and personal communications. Sony’s United States operation used its expertise and leadership in manufacturing television to establish itself in the industry and its local competition and then used this it as leverage to expand its products in the United States (Multinational Corporations, 2006). Another development in multinational operations is that outsourcing of operations or services to other countries. According to both UNCTAD 2004 and 2005 reports, BPO is one of fastest growing industries globally. Joint Ventures   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Joint ventures are operational or service partnerships with companies already existing or operating in the host country. This method of entry is limits is not as liberal as mergers or sequential market entry but is effective when entering heavily regulated markets. The method has been in particular use in entering the markets of China, the Soviet Union and that of Eastern Europe (Multinational Corporations, 2006). The issue of limited control for parent companies is the usually critique of this method and has raised issues regarding liberalization issues (Bernal, Kaukab, and Yu, 2005). Host countries and venture partners significantly benefit from the transfer of technology and management while parent companies are able to enter otherwise restrictive market. The concern for multinational companies however is the development of conflicts with joint venture partners who can become competitors (Multinational Corporations, 2006). Another concern for most multinational corporations regarding entering into joint ventures is that local policies, which their joint venture partners are subject to, are easily changeable. The creation of stable industry policies that may affect joint ventures and similar partnerships is one of the major focuses of developing countries trying to attract more investments (Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, 2005). This move has been supported by the current agenda of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the United Nations (UNCTAD, 2004). Multinational Corporations in Developing Countries   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Entering into s developing market requires the recognition and creation of strategies to deal with poor economic conditions, low educational levels, technological barriers or lack of existing channels and infrastructures for the distribution of the product and service (UNCTAD, 2005). Globalization and Trade Liberalization   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A major reason for multinational expansion is accessing a wider market. This coincides with the international agenda of globalization and trade liberalization. The Asian Financial Crisis may still be a haunting scenario for many investors (Bernal, Kaukab, and Yu, 2005), but the current trends in Asia, particularly China and India, is creating renewed interest in expanding to developing countries (MGI, 2004).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The efforts of developing countries to liberalize trade and industries have also been encouraging. Recent trends have allowed the return of Coca-Cola to India (Nayak, 2006), the ranking of Asia as the most attractive FDI region (Kearney, 2006) and the growing success on BPO’s in India and the Philippines (UNCTAD, 2005).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The operations of multinational corporations have been constructive in the development of markets, the introduction of new products and the development of industries as a whole. Investments of these companies have helped stressed local economies space and opportunity to expand. The technology and management knowledge that multinational companies bring in has helped local research and development to improve standard practices and policies.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Multinational companies have been able to benefit from reduced labor, materials or overall operation costs. A significant benefit of going global is establishing brand and product presence. Many companies have also benefited from the variated market that globalization has provided them increasing product efficiency and marketability. Global Trend and Scenario   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Though multinational corporations significantly contribute to international trade and development have not enjoyed acclaim. Their presence and nature if operations is said to be more detrimental to local economies than beneficial (Baitu, 2006; Tubbs and Schulz, 2006, Chang, 2003). Studies have also shown the negative effects of the operation of multinational corporations prompted some governments to take a protectionist approach which ahs deterred not only these corporations but trade liberalization in general (Wysocki, 2006).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to the UNCTAD report regarding multinational corporations in least developed countries (UNCTAD, 2002), the â€Å"highly centralized nature of these corporations† is the main apprehension against them. Though multinational corporations contribute significantly to local economies in the form of investment, technology and commerce, there is very little barrier to exit from the local industry in case of a national economic downturn (Hoos, 2000). They have been said to have contributed to the aggravation of labor conditions, environmental degradation, and degeneration of social conditions, declined local industries and livelihood, and raised inflation levels (Tubbs and Schulz, 2006).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Furthermore, the mobility of multinational corporations leaves host countries with less bargaining power and allows them significant leverage over countries that are highly disadvantaged and needy of the jobs and investment they provide (UNCTAD, 2002). Current Issues and Concerns for Multinational Operations   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In an international environment, a company’s concerns will have to consider more external factors. International trade laws, liberalization and globalization are the obvious concerns that emerging multinational have to face. More importantly, companies have to orient themselves to local markets, governments and policies that may they may not be familiar with (Wysocki, 2006). Exploring international markets also increases competition not just with traditional competitors but also for new business developments such as micro-multinationals (Ewing, 2005). The risks and challenges of becoming a multinational company need strategies that consider the company’s goals, international market scenarios and effective local marketing approaches. Recommendations In general, there should be further quantitative and qualitative studies on multinational corporations’ actual impact to host countries from individual to industry levels especially for the least developed countries that host them (UNCTAD, 2002).   Multinational companies nowadays are not just commercial ventures; they also serve as highways of liberalization. Some multinational companies have greater assets than the poorest of developing countries leaving these nations with limited bargaining power. The need to attract investments by multinational companies must not undermine the focus on welfare, health and social life (Baitu, 2006). The following considerations are framed UNDTAD’s World Investment Report for 2004 and 2005, the 2002 Report Multinational Corporations in Least Developed Countries; and Bernal, Kaukab and Yu’s The World Development Report 2005 for the WTO:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Host countries must focus on creating industry competencies that do not just cater to the current needs of multinational companies operating in the country. Developing countries must not become dependent on multinational companies and focus on boosting domestic growth.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Developing countries should be liberally cautious in accepting FDI to the country so as to ensure the survival of its local industries. It should not take a protectionist approach creating false security in its local industries but only to alleviate the pressures of advantage that multinationals have by reasons of economies of scale.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Closer coordination with trade associations and international liberalization agencies will allows for developing countries support and knowledge in dealing with multinational corporations. At the same time, multinational corporations can benefit form the standardization of commerce and industry, decreasing speculation and uncertainty for their ventures.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Consideration of social issues can help multinational companies have a better local feel for the host country’s markets. Pubic relations in smaller countries become crucial in building brand and product awareness, purchase and loyalty. It also allows for the feasibility of introducing product extensions and even non-related ventures.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Involving multinational corporations in the host country’s environment, community, research and development can establish a more meaningful relationship. Multinational corporations can benefit form having greater involvement in factors that affect its operations. Fears of multinational corporations being insensitive to local concerns can also be alleviated. Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Multinational expansion is but one of the key indications of globalization. Liberalization signifies a country’s acceptance of globalization. Together, multinational corporations and liberalization act as vehicles for development and cooperation.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   As in all relationships, work must be put in to make it work. Multinationals grow when local economies grow through the development of labor, resources and market expansion. Host countries benefit from the investment, technology transfer and the development of its emerging industries. New multinational companies in particular could prosper and establish themselves well in developing economies where competition may not as stiff and industries not as crowded as they would be in developed countries.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The key is in finding a balance between multinational investment and local industry growth and in creating  Ã‚   a relationship between multinational corporations and host countries that are based on mutual development.          References Baitu, J. (2006) Globalisation for the Common Good and Social Justice in Sub-Saharan Africa [Online]. Available from [Accessed 12 September 2006]. Bergsten, C. F. (2000) The Global Trading System and the Developing Countries in 2000 [Online]. Working Paper 99-6 Institute for International Economics. Available from [Accessed 12 September 2006]. Bernal, L. E., Kaukab, R. S., and Yu, V. P. B. III (2005).The World Development Report 2005: An Unbalanced Message on Investment Liberalization. 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